DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis

Supporting information

RNA, DNA and protein synthesis are fundamental processes necessary for all life.

RNA synthesis (transcription) begins by uncoiling a section of DNA that will be used as the template. RNA polymerase binds to a promoter sequence and initiates separation of the DNA double helix. Complementary ribonucleotides align and RNA polymerase catalyzes their polymerization. The newly synthesized RNA strand undergoes post-transcriptional processing before it leaves the nucleus.

Protein synthesis (translation) is the process of synthesizing a polypeptide chain from a mRNA template. Initiation factors trigger the small ribosomal subunit to bind to mRNA, allowing a tRNA molecule (which contains an amino acid) with an anticodon complementary to the mRNA initiation codon to bind. The large ribosomal subunit now binds and translation occurs. tRNA molecules sequentially bind to the complementary mRNA sequences and ribosomal enzymes catalyze the formation of peptide (amide) bonds.

DNA synthesis is a semiconservative process; each strand serves as a template for the synthesis of a new one. Helicase enzymes 'unwind' the DNA double helix, allowing DNA polymerase access to the polynucleotide chain. DNA polymerase cannot initiate de novo DNA synthesis - an RNA primer is required - and synthesis occurs in a 5' to 3' direction. DNA polymerases have 'proofreading' ability, which is essential to prevent mutations in the genome.

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Literature for DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis

Cancer Research Product Guide

A collection of over 750 products for cancer research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

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Cancer Research Product Guide

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Cancer Research Product Guide

Cancer Research Product Guide

Our Cancer Research Guide highlights over 750 products for cancer research. Request copy or view PDF today.

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