Toll-like Receptors

Supporting information

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are single transmembrane cell-surface receptors, which have a key role in the innate immune system. TLRs generally exist as homodimers (although TLR2-TLR6 heterodimers have been reported) and are found on immune cells such as macrophages, B lymphocytes and mast cells.

Toll-like receptors are activated by molecules associated with biological threat and are highly specific towards evolutionarily conserved entities on microbes, such as bacterial cell-surface lipopolysaccharides, flagella and unmethylated CpG islands. It has been suggested that some toll-like receptors may have endogenous ligands, such as Hsp60 and fibrinogen, and this has promoted speculation that endogenous toll-like receptor activators may have a pathological role in autoimmune disease.

Activation of toll-like receptors initiates downstream signaling cascades, initially via the adapter molecules MyD88, Trap, Trif and Tram, which converge on the PI3K and NF-κB pathways and regulate intracellular kinases and gene expression. This can stimulate an inflammatory and/or antigen-specific immune response. The signaling cascade coupled to toll-like receptor activation is very similar to that of interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) activation.

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Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
TLR1 Human TLR1 NM_003263 Q15399
Mouse Tlr1 NM_030682 Q9EPQ1
Rat Tlr1 XM_223421 -
TLR2 Human TLR2 NM_003264 O60603
Mouse Tlr2 NM_011905 Q9QUN7
Rat Tlr2 NM_198769 Q6YGU2
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Literature for Toll-like Receptors

Cancer Research Product Guide

A collection of over 750 products for cancer research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

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Cancer Research Product Guide
Immunology Product Listing

A collection of over 190 products for immunology research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

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Immunology Product Listing
Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathway
Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathway

TLR signaling is involved in the cellular response to threatening molecules such as bacteria and viruses. It results in an inflammatory and immmunological response.

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Cancer Research Product Guide

Cancer Research Product Guide

Our Cancer Research Guide highlights over 750 products for cancer research. Request copy or view PDF today.

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Immunology Guide

Immunology Product Listing

Our Immunology listing highlights over 190 products for immunology research. Request copy or view PDF today.

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Toll-like Receptor Pathway

Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathway

Toll-like receptors are important in the inflammatory and adaptive and innate immune responses against threatening microbes. View pathway or download PDF today.

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