Insulin and Insulin-like Receptors

Supporting information

Insulin receptors (IRs) and insulin-like growth factor receptors (IGFRs) are formed from two subunits, each of which is comprised of an extracellular α-subunit and a transmembrane β-subunit with intracellular tyrosine kinase activity. IR homodimers are activated by insulin and, in adults, mediate an increase in glucose uptake through upregulation of GLUT4 expression. Two isoforms of the IR exist: fetal IR-A and adult IR-B.

IGF1R homodimers are activated by IGF-I and IGF-II and mediate pre- and postnatal growth. IGF2R sequesters IGF-II and acts to regulate its levels. IR-IGF1R heterodimers exist and, similar to IGF1R homodimers, are activated by IGF-I and IGF-II. IRs and IGFRs mediate their intracellular actions through the PI3K and RAS/RAF/MAPK signaling pathways and downstream effectors include mTOR, p70 S6 kinase, ERK and JNK.

Many tumors have altered expression of IGF1R and its ligands and this constitutes an early, possible initiating, event in tumorigenesis. Decreases in IR signaling causing 'insulin resistance' is a major component in the development of type 2 diabetes and congenital mutations in the IR can cause the fatal Donohue syndrome.

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Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
IR Human INSR NM_000208 P06213
Mouse Insr NM_010568 P15208
Rat Insr NM_017071 Q9WVI3
IGF1R Human IGF1R NM_000875 P08069
Mouse Igf1r NM_010513 Q60751
Rat Igf1r NM_052807 P24062
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Literature for Insulin and Insulin-like Receptors

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Angiogenesis in Cancer Poster
Insulin Signaling Pathway
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Signaling through the insulin pathway is fundamental for the regulation of intracellular glucose levels. This pathway can become dysregulated in diabetes.

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Kinase Inhibitor Toolbox

Includes many of the latest kinase inhibitors to become commercially available. Covers a wide range of kinase targets including EGFR, MAPK and CDK.

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Kinases Product Listing

Kinases Product Listing

Our Kinase listing highlights over 400 products for kinase research. Request copy or view PDF today.

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Appetite Modulation

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Peptides Involved in Appetite Modulation Scientific Review

Our Peptides Involved in Appetite Modulation review gives an overview of the peptides implicated in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. View PDF today.

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Angiogenesis in Cancer

Taken from the Cancer Guide Edition 3

Angiogenesis in Cancer Poster

Our Angiogenesis in Cancer poster summarizes the pathogenesis of angiogenesis in cancer, as well as some of the main angiogenesis therapeutic targets. Request copy or view PDF today.

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Insulin Pathway

Insulin Signaling Pathway

Signals through the insulin pathway are fundamental for the regulation of intracellular glucose levels. View pathway or download PDF today.

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