Insulin and Insulin-like Receptors

Supporting information

Insulin receptors (IRs) and insulin-like growth factor receptors (IGFRs) are formed from two subunits, each of which is comprised of an extracellular α-subunit and a transmembrane β-subunit with intracellular tyrosine kinase activity. IR homodimers are activated by insulin and, in adults, mediate an increase in glucose uptake through upregulation of GLUT4 expression. Two isoforms of the IR exist: fetal IR-A and adult IR-B.

IGF1R homodimers are activated by IGF-I and IGF-II and mediate pre- and postnatal growth. IGF2R sequesters IGF-II and acts to regulate its levels. IR-IGF1R heterodimers exist and, similar to IGF1R homodimers, are activated by IGF-I and IGF-II. IRs and IGFRs mediate their intracellular actions through the PI3K and RAS/RAF/MAPK signaling pathways and downstream effectors include mTOR, p70 S6 kinase, ERK and JNK.

Many tumors have altered expression of IGF1R and its ligands and this constitutes an early, possible initiating, event in tumorigenesis. Decreases in IR signaling causing 'insulin resistance' is a major component in the development of type 2 diabetes and congenital mutations in the IR can cause the fatal Donohue syndrome.

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Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
IR Human INSR NM_000208 P06213
Mouse Insr NM_010568 P15208
Rat Insr NM_017071 Q9WVI3
IGF1R Human IGF1R NM_000875 P08069
Mouse Igf1r NM_010513 Q60751
Rat Igf1r NM_052807 P24062
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Literature for Insulin and Insulin-like Receptors

Kinases Product Listing

A collection of over 400 products for kinase research, the listing includes inhibitors of:

  • Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
  • Protein Kinases A, C, D and G
  • PI-3 Kinase, Akt and mTOR
  • MAPK Signaling
  • Receptor Serine/Threonine Kinases
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Kinases Product Listing
Peptides Involved in Appetite Modulation Scientific Review

A synopsis of the increasing number of peptides that have been implicated in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis, outlining the putative roles of most of the known proteins and lists compounds available from Tocris.

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Peptides Involved in Appetite Modulation Scientific Review
Angiogenesis Life Science Poster

Written by Yongping Crawford and Napoleone Ferrara, this poster highlights major targets for antiangiogenic therapy, namely tumor- and stromal cell-derived pathways. Intrinsic and acquired resistance are described; antiangiogenic therapies targeting the VEGF pathway are also summarized. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.

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Angiogenesis Life Science Poster
Gut Hormones Life Science Poster

Written by Victoria Taylor et al, this poster summarizes the major gut hormones and neuropeptide modulators that influence digestion, appetite and energy expenditure. The intracellular targets of stimulatory and inhibitory hormones and the role of the hypothalamus in signal integration are also described. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.

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Gut Hormones Life Science Poster
Insulin Signaling Pathway
Insulin Signaling Pathway

Signaling through the insulin pathway is fundamental for the regulation of intracellular glucose levels. This pathway can become dysregulated in diabetes.

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Kinase Inhibitor Toolbox

80 Kinase inhibitors
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Kinase Inhibitor Toolbox

Includes many of the latest kinase inhibitors to become commercially available. Covers a wide range of kinase targets including EGFR, MAPK and CDK.

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Kinases Product Listing

Kinases Product Listing

Our Kinase listing highlights over 400 products for kinase research. Request copy or view PDF today.

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Appetite Modulation

Written by S. Tucci et al

Peptides Involved in Appetite Modulation Scientific Review

Our Peptides Involved in Appetite Modulation review gives an overview of the peptides implicated in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. View PDF today.

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VEGF Pathway & Anti-Angiogenic Therapy

Written by N. Ferrara & Y. Crawford

Angiogenesis Life Science Poster

A summary of antiangiogenic therapies targeting the VEGF pathway and the mechanisms of therapy resistance. Request copy today.

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Gut Hormones and the Regulation of Appetite

Written by V.J. Taylor et al

Gut Hormones Life Science Poster

Our Gut Hormones and the Regulation of Appetite poster gives an overview of the neuropeptide modulators and gut hormones that influence appetite. Request copy today.

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Insulin Pathway

Insulin Signaling Pathway

Signals through the insulin pathway are fundamental for the regulation of intracellular glucose levels. View pathway or download PDF today.

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Bio-Techne Events

Pharmacology 2016

Pharmacology 2016

December 13 - 15, 2016

London, UK

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