ATPases and GTPases are enzymes that convert ATP to ADP and GTP to GDP respectively, through hydrolysis of a phosphate bond. They harness the energy released during this process and utilize it to catalyze other cellular reactions. ATPases and GTPases are essential enzymes in all known forms of life and have roles in energy homeostasis and signal transduction.

ATPase/GTPase Target Files

Related Categories
Type P F V
Substances Transported H+, Na+, K+, Ca2+ H+ only H+ only
Structural and Functional Features Large catalytic α-subunits become phosphorylated during solute transport. β-subunits regulate transport Multiple TM and cytosolic subunits synthesize ATP on β-subunits, powered by movement of H+ down an electrochemical gradient Multiple TM and cytosolic subunits use energy released from ATP hydrolysis to pump H+ from cytosol to organelle lumen
Localization H+ pump: plasma membrane of plants, fungi, bacteria
Na+/K+ pump: plasma membrane of higher eukaryotes
H+/K+ pump: plasma membrane of gastric chief cells
Ca2+ pump: plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells
Ca2+ pump: sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane in muscle cells
Bacterial plasma membranes
Inner mitochondrial membrane
Thylakoid membrane of chloroplast
Vacuolar membranes in plants, yeast and other fungi
Endosomal and lyosomal membranes in eukaryotic cells
Plasma membrane of acid-secreting cells (e.g. osteoclasts)

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