Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptors

Supporting information

Hydroxycarboxylic acid (HCA) receptors, previously known as nicotinic acid receptors, are Gi/Go protein-coupled receptors for which hydroxycarboxylic acids are endogenous ligands. Three HCA receptors are known to exist: HCA1 (GPR81), HCA2 (GPR109A) and HCA3 (GPR109B).

GPR109B receptors originated from a gene duplication of GPR109A and have >95% homology. All subtypes are widely expressed throughout adipose tissue and are found at lower levels in macrophages, neutrophils, Langerhans cells and in the spleen. The human genes encoding these receptors are located on chromosome 12 (12q24.3).

To view external sources of pharmacological information for Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptors, please click here: IUPHAR Receptor Code and BJP Guide

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Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
GPR81 Human GPR81 NM_032554 Q9BXC0
Mouse Gpr81 NM_175520 Q8C131
Rat Gpr81 XM_001079195 XP_001072594
GPR109A Human NIACR1 NM_177551 Q8TDS4
Mouse Niacr1 NM_030701 Q9EP66
Rat Niacr1 NM_181476 Q80Z39
GPR109B Human NIACR2 NM_006018 P49019

Literature for Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptors

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