Vascular endothelial growth factor is a signaling protein involved in the regulation of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis.
Whilst multiple receptors and ligands are involved in angiogenesis, VEGF signaling is one of the most important, rate-limiting steps of the process. VEGF is diffusible and selective for vascular endothelial cells, and possesses the ability to promote the growth and survival of these cells in vitro. Hypoxic conditions activate hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), resulting in increased VEGF mRNA expression. Other growth factors such as EGF, TGF-β and PDGF may also upregulate VEGF expression. The increased expression levels of VEGF in solid tumors, hematological malignancies, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetes mellitus and various inflammatory disorders has placed great emphasis on developing VEGF inhibitors.
VEGF binds to and activates the receptor tyrosine kinase, VEGFR. Three VEGFR isoforms have been identified in humans: VEGFR-1 (Flt-1), VEGFR-2 (KDR/Flk-1) and VEGFR-3 (Flt-4) VEGFR-2 mediates the majority of cellular responses to VEGF, in particular its mitogenic and angiogenic effects. VEGFR-1 is thought to modulate VEGFR-2 signaling or to act as a dummy/decoy receptor to sequester VEGF away from VEGFR-2. The expression of VEGFR-1 is also up-regulated by hypoxia, in a similar mechanism to VEGF, via HIF-1; its functions may vary depending on cell type and developmental stage.View all products for VEGFR »
|Gene||Species||Gene Symbol||Gene Accession No.||Protein Accession No.|
|View all VEGF Receptor Gene Data »|
Literature for VEGFR
A collection of over 750 products for cancer research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:
- Cancer Metabolism
- Epigenetics in Cancer
- Receptor Signaling
- Cell Cycle and DNA Damage Repair
- Invasion and Metastasis
A collection of over 400 products for kinase research, the listing includes inhibitors of:
- Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
- Protein Kinases A, C, D and G
- PI-3 Kinase, Akt and mTOR
- MAPK Signaling
- Receptor Serine/Threonine Kinases
Written by Yongping Crawford and Napoleone Ferrara, this poster highlights major targets for antiangiogenic therapy, namely tumor- and stromal cell-derived pathways. Intrinsic and acquired resistance are described; antiangiogenic therapies targeting the VEGF pathway are also summarized. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.Request copy | View all posters
Find multiple products by catalog number
Follow @Tocris on Twitter
Tocris is now actively tweeting. For regular updates on news, events and special offers, follow @Tocris on Twitter.