Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase

Supporting information

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) catalyzes the post-translational modification of proteins by the addition of multiple ADP-ribose moieties. PARP transfers ADP-ribose from nicotinamide dinucleotide (NAD) to Glu/Asp residues on the substrate protein, and also polymerizes ADP-ribose to form long/branched chain polymers. Tankyrase proteins also display PARP activity.

PARP-1, one of 5 confirmed PARPs, is the most abundant and highly expressed PARP enzyme. PARP-1 detects and relocates to single strand breaks or nicks in chromosomal DNA. PARP-1 is thought to play an important role in the initiation of the DNA repair pathway, although high levels of activation are also associated with increased apoptosis in response to genotoxic stress. In addition, PARP-1 may also operate downstream of the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway through direct interaction with ERK2 in the nucleus. PARP inhibitors are being developed for use in a number of pathologies including cancer, diabetes, stroke and cardiovascular disease.

Tankyrases 1 and 2 (TNKS1/PARP5A and TNKS2/PARP5B/PARP5C) are proteins with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity. Human tankyrases post-translationally modify multiple proteins involved in processes including maintenance of telomere length, sister telomere association, insulin responsiveness, spindle assembly and trafficking of GLUT4-containing vesicles. Recently tankyrases have been shown to be involved in the Wnt signaling pathway. Tankyrases bind directly to axin, a member of the 'destruction complex' involved in β-catenin degradation. Inhibition of tankyrase stabilizes axin, increases the activity of the destruction complex and promotes degradation of β-catenin. Tankyrases are therefore an attractive target for cancer therapy.

Poly-ADP-ribosylation of histone proteins is also emerging as an important epigenetic regulatory mechanism.

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Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
PARP1 Human PARP1 NM_001618 P09874
Mouse Parp1 NM_007415 P11103
Rat Parp1 NM_013063 P27008
PARP2 Human PARP2 NM_005484 Q9UGN5
Mouse Parp2 NM_009632 O88554
Rat Parp2 NM_001106030 NP_001099500
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Literature for Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase

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Cell Cycle & DNA Damage Repair Life Science Poster

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Cancer Research Product Guide

Cancer Research Product Guide

Our Cancer Research Guide highlights over 750 products for cancer research. Request copy or view PDF today.

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Neurodegeneration Research Product Guide

Neurodegeneration Product Guide

Our Neurodegeneration guide highlights over 275 products for neurodegeneration research. Request copy or view PDF today.

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Cell Cycle & DNA Damage Repair

Cell Cycle & DNA Damage Repair Life Science Poster

Our Cell Cycle & DNA Damage Repair poster summarizes the stages of the cell cycle and DNA repair. It also highlights strategies for enhancing replicative stress in cancer cells to force mitotic catastrophe and cell death. Request copy or view PDF today.

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