Retinoic Acid Receptors

Supporting information

Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are nuclear hormone receptors of the NR1B class, which function as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs). There are three distinct RAR subtypes: RARα, RARβ and RARγ. RARα is present in most tissue types, whereas RARβ and RARγ expression is more selective.

RXR-RAR heterodimers act as ligand-dependent transcriptional regulators by binding to the specific retinoic acid response element (RARE) found in the promoter regions of target genes. In the absence of an RAR agonist, RXR-RAR recruits co-repressor proteins such as NCoR and associated factors such as histone deacetylase to maintain a condensed chromatin structure. RAR agonist binding stimulates co-repressor release and co-activator complexes, such as histone acetyltransferase, are recruited to activate transcription.

RARs transduce retinoid signals in vivo, which mediates proper embryogenesis, differentiation and growth arrest. Specifically, RXRα-RARγ heterodimers are necessary for growth arrest and visceral and primitive endodermal differentiation, whereas RXRα-RARα is required for cAMP-dependent parietal endodermal differentiation. In vitro it has been difficult to elucidate the roles of individual subtypes as functional RAR knockouts generate artificial redundancies that are thought not to exist under normal conditions.

To view external sources of pharmacological information for Retinoic Acid Receptors, please click here: BJP Guide

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Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
RARα Human RARA NM_000964 P10276
Mouse Rara NM_009024 P11416
Rat Rara NM_031528 Q9QWT3
RARβ Human RARB NM_000965 P10826
Mouse Rarb NM_011243 P22605
Rat Rarb XM_223843 O54746
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Literature for Retinoic Acid Receptors

Cancer Research Product Guide

A collection of over 750 products for cancer research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

  • Cancer Metabolism
  • Epigenetics in Cancer
  • Receptor Signaling
  • Cell Cycle and DNA Damage Repair
  • Angiogenesis
  • Invasion and Metastasis
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Cancer Research Product Guide
Nuclear Receptors Product Listing

A collection of over 150 products for key nuclear receptors, the listing includes research tools for the study of:

  • Androgen Receptors
  • Estrogen Receptors
  • Retinoic Acid Receptors
  • Retinoid X Receptors
  • Vitamin D Receptors
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Nuclear Receptors Product Listing
Retinoid Receptors Scientific Review

Written by Alexander Moise, this review summarizes the nature of retinoid receptors, their isotype and isoform variants and modulation of retinoid signaling. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.

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Retinoid Receptors Scientific Review

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Cancer Research Product Guide

Cancer Research Product Guide

Our Cancer Research Guide highlights over 750 products for cancer research. Request copy or view PDF today.

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Nuclear Receptors Product Listing

Nuclear Receptors Product Listing

Our Nuclear Receptors Listing highlights over 150 products for nuclear receptors. Request copy or view PDF today.

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RXR and RAR Scientific Review

Written by Alexander Moise

Retinoid Receptors Scientific Review

Our Retinoid Receptor review gives a summary of retinoic acid and retinoid X receptor pharmacology, and the modulation of retinoid signaling. Request copy or view PDF today.

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