MAPK IKK IκB AP-1 AP-1 NF-κB NF-κB Rac1 MEK1/2 Caspase-8 Akt Immune Response Inflammation Cytokines
The toll-like receptors (TLRs) act in response to molecular patterns found in microbes such as bacteria and viruses that pose a biological threat. The signaling pathway leads to the activation of innate and acquired immunity along with an inflammatory response and the upregulation of cytokines.
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