SB 431542

Cat. No. 1614

SB 431542 C22H16N4O3 [301836-41-9]

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Chemical Name: 4-[4-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-5-(2-pyridinyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl]benzamide

Biological Activity

Potent and selective inhibitor of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) type I receptor activin receptor-like kinase ALK5 (IC50 = 94 nM), and its relatives ALK4 and ALK7. Suppresses TGF-β-induced proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells. Stimulates proliferation, differentiation and sheet formation of ESC-derived endothelial cells. Inhibits TGF-β-induced EMT, migration, invasion and VEGF secretion in several human cancer cell lines.

Licensing Information

Sold for research purposes under agreement from GlaxoSmithKline

Technical Data

Soluble to 10 mM in ethanol and to 100 mM in DMSO
>99 %
Store at RT

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet / Safety Datasheet

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
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References are publications that support the products' biological activity.

Halder et al (2005) A specific inhibitor of TGF-beta receptor kinase, SB-431542, as a potent antitumor agent for human cancers. Neoplasia 7 509. PMID: 15967103.

Matsuyama et al (2003) SB-431542 and Gleevec inhibit transforming growth factor-β-induced proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells. Cancer Res. 63 7791. PMID: 14633705.

Watabe et al (2003) TGF-beta receptor kinase inhibitor enhances growth and integrity of embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells. J.Cell Biol. 163 163. PMID: 14676305.

Inman et al (2002) SB-431542 is a potent and specific inhibitor of transforming growth factor-β superfamily type I activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) receptors ALK4, ALK5, and ALK7. Mol.Pharmacol. 62 65. PMID: 12065756.

Laping et al (2002) Inhibition of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced extracellular matrix with a novel inhibitor of the TGF-β type I receptor kinase activity: SB-431542. Mol.Pharmacol. 62 58. PMID: 12065755.

If you know of a relevant reference for SB 431542 please let us know.

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for SB 431542 include:

de la Mare (2017) Extracellular Hsp90 and TGFβ regulate adhesion, migration and anchorage independent growth in a paired colon cancer cell line model. BMC Cancer 17 (1) 202. PMID: 28302086.

Huang et al (2016) Generating trunk neural crest from human pluripotent stem cells. Sci Rep 6 19727. PMID: 26812940.

Kapeli et al (2016) Distinct and shared functions of ALS-associated proteins TDP-43, FUS and TAF15 revealed by multisystem analyses Nature Communications 7 12143. PMID: 27378374.

Marro et al (2016) Collagen XII contributes to epicardial and connective tissues in the Zebrafish heart during ontogenesis and regeneration PLoS One 11 e0165497. PMID: 27783651.

Moerkamp et al (2016) Human fetal and adult epicardial-derived cells: a novel model to study their activation Stem Cell Research & Therapy 7 174. PMID: 27899163.

Morris et al (2016) The Epstein-Barr virus encoded LMP1 oncoprotein modulates cell adhesion via regulation of activin A/TGFβ and β1 integrin signalling. Mol Cell Biol 6 19533. PMID: 26782058.

Mou et al (2016) Dual SMAD Signaling Inhibition Enables Long-Term Expansion of Diverse Epithelial Basal Cells Cell: Stem Cell 19 217. PMID: 27320041.

Oenema et al (2016) Bronchoconstriction Induces TGF-β Release and Airway Remodelling in Guinea Pig Lung Slices. Stem Cells 8 e65580. PMID: 23840342.

Sulaiman et al (2016) A trematode parasite derived growth factor binds and exerts influences on host immune functions via host cytokine receptor complexes PLoS Pathogens 12 e1005991. PMID: 27806135.

Vargel et al (2016) Activation of the TGFβ pathway impairs endothelial to haematopoietic transition. Nat Protoc 6 21518. PMID: 26891705.

Agu et al (2015) Successful Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines from Blood Samples Held at Room Temperature for up to 48 hr. Exp Neurol 5 660. PMID: 26388286.

Aspalter et al (2015) Alk1 and Alk5 inhibition by Nrp1 controls vascular sprouting downstream of Notch. Nat Commun 6 7264. PMID: 26081042.

Bras et al (2015) TGFβ loss activates ADAMTS-1-mediated EGF-dependent invasion in a model of esophageal cell invasion. Mol Med 330 29. PMID: 25064463.

Caraci et al (2015) A key role for TGF-β1 in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory. PLoS Comput Biol 5 11252. PMID: 26059637.

Cebola et al (2015) TEAD and YAP regulate the enhancer network of human embryonic pancreatic progenitors. Mol Cell Endocrinol 17 615. PMID: 25915126.

Chen et al (2015) Pentoxifylline Attenuates Proteinuria in Anti-Thy1 Glomerulonephritis via Downregulation of Nuclear Factor-κB and Smad2/3 Signaling. Brain 21 276. PMID: 25879629.

Hadland et al (2015) Endothelium and NOTCH specify and amplify aorta-gonad-mesonephros-derived hematopoietic stem cells. Nat Cell Biol 125 2032. PMID: 25866967.

Honsho et al (2015) Naïve-like conversion enhances the difference in innate in vitro differentiation capacity between rabbit ES cells and iPS cells. BMC Cancer 61 42626. PMID: 25345855.

Hu et al (2015) Generation of Naivetropic Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Parkinson's Disease Patients for High-Efficiency Genetic Manipulation and Disease Modeling. J Virol 24 2591. PMID: 26218671.

Huang et al (2015) The in vitro generation of lung and airway progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells. Exp Cell Res 10 413. PMID: 25654758.

Imaizumi et al (2015) Controlling the Regional Identity of hPSC-Derived Neurons to Uncover Neuronal Subtype Specificity of Neurological Disease Phenotypes. J Clin Invest 5 1010. PMID: 26549851.

Iovino et al (2015) Early maturation and distinct tau pathology in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from patients with MAPT mutations. Development 138 3345. PMID: 26220942.

Jönsson et al (2015) Comprehensive analysis of microRNA expression in regionalized human neural progenitor cells reveals microRNA-10 as a caudalizing factor. Stem Cell Reports 142 3166. PMID: 26395143.

Kawahara et al (2015) TGF-β Negatively Regulates the BMP2-Dependent Early Commitment of Periodontal Ligament Cells into Hard Tissue Forming Cells. PeerJ 10 e0125590. PMID: 25970290.

Kumar et al (2015) Generation of an expandable intermediate mesoderm restricted progenitor cell line from human pluripotent stem cells. Elife 4. PMID: 26554899.

Lages et al (2015) Low oxygen alters mitochondrial function and response to oxidative stress in human neural progenitor cells. J Reprod Dev 3 e1486. PMID: 26713239.

Li et al (2015) MicroRNA-132 enhances transition from inflammation to proliferation during wound healing. Sci Rep 125 3008. PMID: 26121747.

Martínez-Armenta et al (2015) TGFβ2 regulates hypothalamic Trh expression through the TGFβ inducible early gene-1 (TIEG1) during fetal development. J Clin Invest 400 129. PMID: 25448845.

Niederst et al (2015) Axonal amyloid precursor protein and its fragments undergo somatodendritic endocytosis and processing. Hum Mol Genet 26 205. PMID: 25392299.

Oh et al (2015) Human-induced pluripotent stem cells generated from intervertebral disc cells improve neurologic functions in spinal cord injury. Stem Cell Res Ther 6 125. PMID: 26104416.

Ooi et al (2015) Inhibition of Excessive Monoamine Oxidase A/B Activity Protects Against Stress-induced Neuronal Death in Huntington Disease. PLoS One 52 1850. PMID: 25398695.

Pasca et al (2015) Functional cortical neurons and astrocytes from human pluripotent stem cells in 3D culture. Nat Methods 12 671. PMID: 26005811.

Piao et al (2015) Human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors remyelinate the brain and rescue behavioral deficits following radiation. Cell Stem Cell 16 198. PMID: 25658373.

Ramnath et al (2015) Fibulin-4 deficiency increases TGF-β signalling in aortic smooth muscle cells due to elevated TGF-β2 levels. Evodevo 5 16872. PMID: 26607280.

Sakaguchi et al (2015) Generation of functional hippocampal neurons from self-organizing human embryonic stem cell-derived dorsomedial telencephalic tissue. Mol Neurobiol 6 8896. PMID: 26573335.

Sanders et al (2015) SMAD-independent down-regulation of caveolin-1 by TGF-β: effects on proliferation and survival of myofibroblasts. PLoS One 10 e0116995. PMID: 25658089.

Saporta et al (2015) Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease patient-derived motor neurons demonstrate disease-specific phenotypes including abnormal electrophysiological properties. Nat Commun 263 190. PMID: 25448007.

Singh et al (2015) Cell-Cycle Control of Bivalent Epigenetic Domains Regulates the Exit from Pluripotency. Stem Cells Dev 5 323. PMID: 26278042.

Soukup et al (2015) The Nodal signaling pathway controls left-right asymmetric development in amphioxus. J Clin Invest 6 5. PMID: 25954501.

Sposito et al (2015) Developmental regulation of tau splicing is disrupted in stem cell-derived neurons from frontotemporal dementia patients with the 10 + 16 splice-site mutation in MAPT. Stem Cell Reports 24 5260. PMID: 26136155.

Tabata et al (2015) Human cytomegalovirus infection interferes with the maintenance and differentiation of trophoblast progenitor cells of the human placenta. Sci Rep 89 5134. PMID: 25741001.

Wilson et al (2015) The differential anti-tumour effects of zoledronic acid in breast cancer - evidence for a role of the activin signaling pathway. Sci Rep 15 55. PMID: 25884855.

Woods et al (2015) Increased Expression of TGF-β Signaling Components in a Mouse Model of Fibrosis Induced by Submandibular Gland Duct Ligation. PLoS One 10 e0123641. PMID: 25955532.

Yan et al (2015) Stimulation of hepatocarcinogenesis by neutrophils upon induction of oncogenic kras expression in transgenic zebrafish. J Hepatol 63 420. PMID: 25828472.

Ziv et al (2015) Quantitative Live Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Neural Rosettes Reveals Structure-Function Dynamics Coupled to Cortical Development. Mol Biol Cell 11 e1004453. PMID: 26473351.

Aguila et al (2014) Selection Based on FOXA2 Expression Is Not Sufficient to Enrich for Dopamine Neurons From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Stem Cells Transl Med 3 1032. PMID: 25024431.

Babu et al (2014) TGFβ-mediated suppression of CD248 in non-cancer cells via canonical Smad-dependent signaling pathways is uncoupled in cancer cells. BMC Cancer 14 113. PMID: 24555435.

Curado et al (2014) ALK5 and ALK1 play antagonistic roles in transforming growth factor β-induced podosome formation in aortic endothelial cells. Exp Neurol 34 4389. PMID: 25266657.

Dai et al (2014) Combining TGF-β signal inhibition and connexin43 silencing for iPSC induction from mouse cardiomyocytes. PLoS One 4 7323. PMID: 25471520.

Domev et al (2014) Immunoevasive pericytes from human pluripotent stem cells preferentially modulate induction of allogeneic regulatory T cells. Stem Cells Transl Med 3 1169. PMID: 25205843.

Fang et al (2014) Ets Related Gene and Smad3 Proteins Collaborate to Activate Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Mediated Signaling Pathway in ETS Related Gene-Positive Prostate Cancer Cells. J Pharm Sci Pharmacol 1 175. PMID: 25745638.

Grunseich et al (2014) Stem cell-derived motor neurons from spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy patients. Neurobiol Dis 70 12. PMID: 24925468.

Huang et al (2014) Efficient generation of lung and airway epithelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells. Nat Biotechnol 32 84. PMID: 24291815.

Nishimura et al (2014) Allele-specific knockdown of ALS-associated mutant TDP-43 in neural stem cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. PLoS One 9 e91269. PMID: 24651281.

Rosa et al (2014) miR-373 is regulated by TGFβ signaling and promotes mesendoderm differentiation in human Embryonic Stem Cells. Dev Biol 391 81. PMID: 24709321.

Soares et al (2014) Investigating the feasibility of scale up and automation of human induced pluripotent stem cells cultured in aggregates in feeder free conditions. Cell Stem Cell 173 53. PMID: 24440272.

Wrighton et al (2014) Signals from the surface modulate differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells through glycosaminoglycans and integrins. J Cell Sci 111 18126. PMID: 25422477.

Wu et al (2014) A novel suppressive effect of alcohol dehydrogenase 5 in neuronal differentiation. Fibrogenesis Tissue Repair 289 20193. PMID: 24895131.

Bialas and (2013) TGF-β signaling regulates neuronal C1q expression and developmental synaptic refinement. Nat Neurosci 16 1773. PMID: 24162655.

Briones-Orta et al (2013) Arkadia regulates tumor metastasis by modulation of the TGF-β pathway. Am J Stem Cells 73 1800. PMID: 23467611.

Chetty et al (2013) A simple tool to improve pluripotent stem cell differentiation. Cell 10 553. PMID: 23584186.

Crompton et al (2013) Stepwise, non-adherent differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to generate basal forebrain cholinergic neurons via hedgehog signaling. PLoS One 11 1206. PMID: 24013066.

Davila et al (2013) Acute reduction in oxygen tension enhances the induction of neurons from human fibroblasts. J Neurosci Methods 216 104. PMID: 23562599.

Honda et al (2013) Naive-like conversion overcomes the limited differentiation capacity of induced pluripotent stem cells. ACS Chem Neurosci 288 26157. PMID: 23880763.

Jiang et al (2013) Translating dosage compensation to trisomy 21. Nature 500 296. PMID: 23863942.

Kim et al (2013) High-power femtosecond-terahertz pulse induces a wound response in mouse skin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 3 2296. PMID: 23907528.

Kirkeby et al (2013) Generating regionalized neuronal cells from pluripotency, a step-by-step protocol. Front Cell Neurosci 6 64. PMID: 23316134.

Kreitzer et al (2013) A robust method to derive functional neural crest cells from human pluripotent stem cells. Nat Methods 2 119. PMID: 23862100.

Kusuma et al (2013) Self-organized vascular networks from human pluripotent stem cells in a synthetic matrix. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 110 12601. PMID: 23858432.

Lotz et al (2013) Sustained levels of FGF2 maintain undifferentiated stem cell cultures with biweekly feeding. PLoS One 8 e56289. PMID: 23437109.

Pol et al (2013) Sox10-MCS5 enhancer dynamically tracks human oligodendrocyte progenitor fate. Stem Cell Res 247 694. PMID: 23507034.

Razak et al (2013) Profiling of microRNA in human and mouse ES and iPS cells reveals overlapping but distinct microRNA expression patterns. Nat Neurosci 8 e73532. PMID: 24086284.

Shalom-Feuerstein et al (2013) Impaired epithelial differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells from ectodermal dysplasia-related patients is rescued by the small compound APR-246/PRIMA-1MET. Neuropsychopharmacology 110 2152. PMID: 23355677.

Shields et al (2013) Snail cooperates with KrasG12D to promote pancreatic fibrosis. Mol Cancer Res 11 1078. PMID: 23761168.

Spender et al (2013) Transforming growth factor-β directly induces p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) during the rapid induction of apoptosis in myc-driven B-cell lymphomas. J Biol Chem 288 5198. PMID: 23243310.

Voon et al (2013) EMT-induced stemness and tumorigenicity are fueled by the EGFR/Ras pathway. PLoS One 8 e70427. PMID: 23950932.

Woodruff et al (2013) The presenilin-1 δE9 mutation results in reduced γ-secretase activity, but not total loss of PS1 function, in isogenic human stem cells. Cell Rep 5 974. PMID: 24239350.

Xia et al (2013) Identification of repurposed small molecule drugs for chordoma therapy. Cancer Biol Ther 14 638. PMID: 23792643.

Boettler et al (2012) TGF-β blockade does not improve control of an established persistent viral infection. Viral Immunol 25 232. PMID: 22620718.

Boeuf et al (2012) BMP and TGFbeta pathways in human central chondrosarcoma: enhanced endoglin and Smad 1 signaling in high grade tumors. BMC Cancer 12 488. PMID: 23088614.

Denham et al (2012) Glycogen synthase kinase 3β and activin/nodal inhibition in human embryonic stem cells induces a pre-neuroepithelial state that is required for specification to a floor plate cell lineage. J Neurosci 30 2400. PMID: 22911885.

Grönroos et al (2012) Transforming growth factor β inhibits bone morphogenetic protein-induced transcription through novel phosphorylated Smad1/5-Smad3 complexes. Mol Cell Biol 32 2904. PMID: 22615489.

Hoda et al (2012) Suppression of activin A signals inhibits growth of malignant pleural mesothelioma cells. Br J Cancer 107 1978. PMID: 23169291.

Mak et al (2012) Small molecules greatly improve conversion of human-induced pluripotent stem cells to the neuronal lineage. Stem Cells Int 2012 140427. PMID: 22567022.

Neely et al (2012) DMH1, a highly selective small molecule BMP inhibitor promotes neurogenesis of hiPSCs: comparison of PAX6 and SOX1 expression during neural induction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 3 482. PMID: 22860217.

Outten et al (2012) High-throughput screening assay for embryoid body differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol Chapter 1 Unit 1D.6. PMID: 22415836.

Rodríguez et al (2012) Modulation of pluripotency in the porcine embryo and iPS cells. Nat Biotechnol 7 e49079. PMID: 23145076.

Rostovskaya et al (2012) Transposon-mediated BAC transgenesis in human ES cells. Nucleic Acids Res 40 e150. PMID: 22753106.

Shi et al (2012) Human cerebral cortex development from pluripotent stem cells to functional excitatory synapses. Cancer Res 15 477. PMID: 22306606.

Smith et al (2012) A novel co-operative mechanism linking TGFβ and Lyn kinase activation to imatinib resistance in chronic myeloid leukaemia cells. PLoS One 3 518. PMID: 22643838.

Sohni et al (2012) TGFβ1-induced Baf60c regulates both smooth muscle cell commitment and quiescence. PLoS One 7 e47629. PMID: 23110084.

Valdez et al (2012) Notch and TGFβ form a reciprocal positive regulatory loop that suppresses murine prostate basal stem/progenitor cell activity. Nature 11 676. PMID: 23122291.

Varela et al (2012) Recurrent genomic instability of chromosome 1q in neural derivatives of human embryonic stem cells. Sci Rep 122 569. PMID: 22269325.

Bedel et al (2011) Novel role for STAT3 in transcriptional regulation of NK immune cell targeting receptor MICA on cancer cells. Cancer Res 71 1615. PMID: 21257710.

Chen et al (2011) Thrombospondin 1 is a key mediator of transforming growth factor β-mediated cell contractility in systemic sclerosis via a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent mechanism. PLoS One 4 9. PMID: 21453480.

Duan et al (2011) Increased transforming growth factor β contributes to deterioration of refrigerated fresh frozen plasma's effects in vitro on endothelial cells. J Clin Cell Immunol 36 54. PMID: 21330944.

Grocott et al (2011) Neural crest cells organize the eye via TGF-β and canonical Wnt signalling. Stem Cell Reports 2 265. PMID: 21468017.

Hecker et al (2011) Reversible differentiation of myofibroblasts by MyoD. PLoS One 317 1914. PMID: 21440539.

Herman-Edelstein et al (2011) Dedifferentiation of immortalized human podocytes in response to transforming growth factor-β: a model for diabetic podocytopathy. Diabetes 60 1779. PMID: 21521871.

Olkhanud et al (2011) Tumor-evoked regulatory B cells promote breast cancer metastasis by converting resting CD4+ T cells to T-regulatory cells. Cancer Res 71 3505. PMID: 21444674.

Paek et al (2011) β-Catenin-dependent FGF signaling sustains cell survival in the anterior embryonic head by countering Smad4. Dev Cell 20 689. PMID: 21571225.

Seibler et al (2011) Mitochondrial Parkin recruitment is impaired in neurons derived from mutant PINK1 induced pluripotent stem cells. Shock 31 5970. PMID: 21508222.

Shields et al (2011) Pancreatic cancer cells respond to type I collagen by inducing snail expression to promote membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase-dependent collagen invasion. J Biol Chem 286 10495. PMID: 21288898.

Tan et al (2011) Generation of trophoblast stem cells from rabbit embryonic stem cells with BMP4. Nat Cell Biol 6 e17124. PMID: 21359200.

Wilson et al (2011) Human tumour immune evasion via TGF-β blocks NK cell activation but not survival allowing therapeutic restoration of anti-tumour activity. PLoS One 6 e22842. PMID: 21909397.

Xi et al (2011) A poised chromatin platform for TGF-β access to master regulators. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 147 1511. PMID: 22196728.

Xie et al (2011) Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Antagonizes Interleukin-5 Pro-Survival Signaling by Activating Calpain-1 in Primary Human Eosinophils. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A Suppl 1. PMID: 24244891.

Fong et al (2010) Tumor-supportive and osteoclastogenic changes induced by breast cancer-derived factors are reversed by inhibition of {gamma}-secretase. J Biol Chem 285 31427. PMID: 20679341.

Ham et al (2010) PPARdelta promotes wound healing by up-regulating TGF-beta1-dependent or -independent expression of extracellular matrix proteins. J Cell Mol Med 14 1747. PMID: 19538467.

Hannigan et al (2010) Epigenetic downregulation of human disabled homolog 2 switches TGF-beta from a tumor suppressor to a tumor promoter. J Clin Invest 120 2842. PMID: 20592473.

Ishida et al (2010) Phosphorylation of Junb family proteins by the Jun N-terminal kinase supports tissue regeneration in zebrafish. Dev Biol 340 468. PMID: 20144602.

Moyano et al (2010) Autocrine transforming growth factor-{beta}1 activation mediated by integrin {alpha}V{beta}3 regulates transcriptional expression of laminin-332 in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells. Mol Biol Cell 21 3654. PMID: 20844080.

Redondo et al (2010) Role of TGF-β1 and MAP kinases in the antiproliferative effect of aspirin in human vascular smooth muscle cells. PLoS One 5 e9800. PMID: 20339548.

Wang et al (2010) Regulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic factors by CCN2/CTGF in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Nat Commun 4 15. PMID: 20195389.

Cacheaux et al (2009) Transcriptome profiling reveals TGF-beta signaling involvement in epileptogenesis. J Neurosci 29 8927. PMID: 19605630.

Chambers et al (2009) Highly efficient neural conversion of human ES and iPS cells by dual inhibition of SMAD signaling. J Biotechnol 27 275. PMID: 19252484.

Clarke et al (2009) Transforming growth factor beta depletion is the primary determinant of Smad signaling kinetics. Mol Cell Biol 29 2443. PMID: 19223462.

Garamszegi et al (2009) Extracellular matrix-induced gene expression in human breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res 7 319. PMID: 19276183.

Giampieri et al (2009) Localized and reversible TGFβ signalling switches breast cancer cells from cohesive to single cell motility. J Biol Chem 11 1287. PMID: 19838175.

Grande and Patel (2009) Nodal signalling is involved in left-right asymmetry in snails. J Cell Commun Signal 457 1007. PMID: 19098895.

Li et al (2009) Generation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells in the absence of exogenous Sox2. Stem Cells 27 2992. PMID: 19839055.

Patani et al (2009) Activin/Nodal inhibition alone accelerates highly efficient neural conversion from human embryonic stem cells and imposes a caudal positional identity. Oncotarget 4 e7327. PMID: 19806200.

Patsialou et al (2009) Invasion of human breast cancer cells in vivo requires both paracrine and autocrine loops involving the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor. Cancer Res 69 9498. PMID: 19934330.

Waghabi et al (2009) Pharmacological inhibition of transforming growth factor β signaling decreases infection and prevents heart damage in acute Chagas' disease. Sci Rep 53 4694. PMID: 19738024.

Ding and Warburton (2008) Down-regulation of Sprouty2 via p38 MAPK plays a key role in the induction of cellular apoptosis by tumor necrosis factor-α. Hypertens Res 375 460. PMID: 18713620.

Gressner et al (2008) Activation of TGF-beta within cultured hepatocytes and in liver injury leads to intracrine signaling with expression of connective tissue growth factor. J Cell Mol Med 12 2717. PMID: 18266973.

Stoikos et al (2008) A distinct cohort of the TGFbeta superfamily members expressed in human endometrium regulate decidualization. Hum Reprod 23 1447. PMID: 18434375.

Yang et al (2008) Rb/E2F4 and Smad2/3 link survivin to TGF-beta-induced apoptosis and tumor progression. Oncogene 27 5326. PMID: 18504435.

Zhang et al (2008) Short-term BMP-4 treatment initiates mesoderm induction in human embryonic stem cells. Blood 111 1933. PMID: 18042803.

Castañares et al (2007) Signaling by ALK5 mediates TGF-β-induced ET-1 expression in endothelial cells: a role for migration and proliferation. Genes Dev 120 1256. PMID: 17376964.

Horowitz et al (2007) Combinatorial activation of FAK and AKT by transforming growth factor-beta1 confers an anoikis-resistant phenotype to myofibroblasts. Cell Signal 19 761. PMID: 17113264.

Chen et al (2006) Identification of phosphatases for Smad in the BMP/DPP pathway. Sci Rep 20 648. PMID: 16510868.

Ninomiya et al (2006) Transforming growth factor-β signaling enhances transdifferentiation of macrophages into smooth muscle-like cells. Mol Cell Biol 29 269. PMID: 16778334.

Shi-Wen et al (2006) Constitutive ALK5-independent c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation contributes to endothelin-1 overexpression in pulmonary fibrosis: evidence of an autocrine endothelin loop operating through the endothelin A and B receptors. Exp Cell Res 26 5518. PMID: 16809784.

Zhao et al (2006) PPARgamma agonists prevent TGFbeta1/Smad3-signaling in human hepatic stellate cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 350 385. PMID: 17010940.

Anumanthan et al (2005) Restoration of TGF-beta signalling reduces tumorigenicity in human lung cancer cells. Br J Cancer 93 1157. PMID: 16251876.

Chen et al (2005) Matrix contraction by dermal fibroblasts requires transforming growth factor-beta/activin-linked kinase 5, heparan sulfate-containing proteoglycans, and MEK/ERK: insights into pathological scarring in chronic fibrotic disease. Am J Pathol 167 1699. PMID: 16314481.

König et al (2005) TGF-{beta}1 activates two distinct type I receptors in neurons: implications for neuronal NF-{kappa}B signaling. J Cell Biol 168 1077. PMID: 15781474.

Mimura et al (2005) Trastuzumab-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 11 4898. PMID: 16000588.

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