CHIR 99021

Cat. No. 4423

CHIR 99021 C22H18Cl2N8 [252917-06-9]

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Chemical Name: 6-[[2-[[4-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-5-(5-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]ethyl]amino]-3-pyridinecarbonitrile

Biological Activity

Potent and highly selective inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) (IC50 values are 6.7 and 10 nM for GSK-3β and GSK-3α respectively). Exhibits >500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 over closely related kinases; also displays >800-fold selectivity against 45 additional enzymes and receptors. In combination with tranylcypromine (Cat. No. 3852), enables reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts, transduced by Oct4 and Klf4 only, into iPSCs. Enhances mouse and human ESC self-renewal when used in combination with PD 0325901 (Cat. No. 4192).

Technical Data

M.Wt:
465.34
Formula:
C22H18Cl2N8
Solubility:
Soluble to 20 mM in DMSO
Purity:
>98 %
Storage:
Store at -20°C
CAS No:
252917-06-9

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet / Safety Data Sheet

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
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Ye et al (2012) Pleiotropy of glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition by CHIR99021 promotes self-renewal of embyronic stem cells from refractory mouse strains. PLoS One 7 e35892. PMID: 22540008.

Pan et al (2011) AKT kinase activity is required for lithium to modulate mood-related behaviors in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology 36 1397. PMID: 21389981.

Li et al (2009) Generation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells in the absence of exogenous Sox2. Stem Cells 27 2992. PMID: 19839055.

Ring et al (2003) Selective glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors potentiate insulin activation of glucose transport and utilization in vitro and in vivo. Diabetes 52 588. PMID: 12606497.

If you know of a relevant reference for this product please let us know.

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for CHIR 99021 include:

Chal et al (2016) Generation of human muscle fibers and satellite-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells in vitro. Nat.Protoc. 11 1833. PMID: 27583644.

Foulke-Abel et al (2016) Human Enteroids as a Model of Upper Small Intestinal Ion Transport Physiology and Pathophysiology. Nat Commun 150 638. PMID: 26677983.

Huang et al (2016) Generating trunk neural crest from human pluripotent stem cells. PLoS One 6 19727. PMID: 26812940.

Long et al (2016) Integrin signalling regulates the expansion of neuroepithelial progenitors and neurogenesis via Wnt7a and Decorin. Nat Biotechnol 7 10354. PMID: 26838601.

Lu et al (2016) Generation of serotonin neurons from human pluripotent stem cells. Nat Biotechnol 34 89. PMID: 26655496.

Mou et al (2016) Dual SMAD Signaling Inhibition Enables Long-Term Expansion of Diverse Epithelial Basal Cells Cell: Stem Cell 19 217. PMID: 27320041.

Takasato et al (2016) Generation of kidney organoids from human pluripotent stem cells. Nature Protocols 11 1681. PMID: 27560173.

Woo et al (2016) Enhancing a Wnt-Telomere Feedback Loop Restores Intestinal Stem Cell Function in a Human Organotypic Model of Dyskeratosis Congenita Cell Stem Cell 19 397. PMID: 27545506.

Zhang et al (2016) Pharmacological reprogramming of fibroblasts into neural stem cells by signaling-directed transcriptional activation. Cell Stem Cell 18 653. PMID: 27133794.

Barbosa et al (2015) Phosphorylation and SCF-mediated degradation regulate CREB-H transcription of metabolic targets. Stem Cell Reports 26 2939. PMID: 26108621.

Du et al (2015) Generation and expansion of highly pure motor neuron progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells. Nat.Commun. 6 6626. PMID: 25806427.

Francipane and Lagasse (2015) The lymph node as a new site for kidney organogenesis. Stem Cells Transl Med 4 295. PMID: 25646529.

Hill et al (2015) Glycogen synthase kinase-3 controls IL-10 expression in CD4(+) effector T-cell subsets through epigenetic modification of the IL-10 promoter. Mol Neurobiol 45 1103. PMID: 25627813.

Huebsch et al (2015) Automated Video-Based Analysis of Contractility and Calcium Flux in Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Cultured over Different Spatial Scales. Tissue Eng Part C Methods 21 467. PMID: 25333967.

Jain et al (2015) Plasticity of Hopx(+) type I alveolar cells to regenerate type II cells in the lung. Nat Commun 6 6727. PMID: 25865356.

Kearns et al (2015) Functional annotation of native enhancers with a Cas9-histone demethylase fusion. Nat Methods 12 401. PMID: 25775043.

Morizane et al (2015) Nephron organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells model kidney development and injury. Stem Cell Reports 33 1193. PMID: 26458176.

Mutze et al (2015) Enolase 1 (ENO1) and protein disulfide-isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3) regulate Wnt/β-catenin-driven trans-differentiation of murine alveolar epithelial cells. Cell Rep 8 877. PMID: 26035385.

Nostro et al (2015) Efficient generation of NKX6-1+ pancreatic progenitors from multiple human pluripotent stem cell lines. Eur J Immunol 4 591. PMID: 25843049.

Ooi et al (2015) Inhibition of Excessive Monoamine Oxidase A/B Activity Protects Against Stress-induced Neuronal Death in Huntington Disease. Nat Chem Biol 52 1850. PMID: 25398695.

Sladitschek and Neveu (2015) The bimodally expressed microRNA miR-142 gates exit from pluripotency. J Biol Chem 11 850. PMID: 26690966.

Solari et al (2015) Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Expression Is Induced by Nanog and Oct4, Essential Pluripotent Stem Cells' Transcription Factors. Mol Syst Biol 10 e0144336. PMID: 26642061.

Srikanth et al (2015) Genomic DISC1 Disruption in hiPSCs Alters Wnt Signaling and Neural Cell Fate. Sci Rep 12 1414. PMID: 26299970.

Thorne et al (2015) GSK-3 modulates cellular responses to a broad spectrum of kinase inhibitors. Mol Biol Cell 11 58. PMID: 25402767.

Watmuff et al (2015) Human pluripotent stem cell derived midbrain PITX3(eGFP/w) neurons: a versatile tool for pharmacological screening and neurodegenerative modeling. Front Cell Neurosci 9 104. PMID: 25873861.

Zhang et al (2015) GSK3β-Dzip1-Rab8 cascade regulates ciliogenesis after mitosis. PLoS Biol 13 e1002129. PMID: 25860027.

Muthusamy et al (2014) A method to identify and isolate pluripotent human stem cells and mouse epiblast stem cells using lipid body-associated retinyl ester fluorescence. Stem Cell Reports 3 169. PMID: 25068130.

Shelton et al (2014) Derivation and expansion of PAX7-positive muscle progenitors from human and mouse embryonic stem cells. Dis Model Mech 3 516. PMID: 25241748.

Skelton et al (2014) SIRPA, VCAM1 and CD34 identify discrete lineages during early human cardiovascular development. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 13 172. PMID: 24968096.

Wu et al (2014) A novel suppressive effect of alcohol dehydrogenase 5 in neuronal differentiation. Stem Cell Res 289 20193. PMID: 24895131.

Zhu et al (2014) Mouse liver repopulation with hepatocytes generated from human fibroblasts. Nature 508 93. PMID: 24572354.

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Keywords: CHIR 99021, supplier, CHIR99021, glycogen, synthase, kinase, 3, gsk-3, gsk-3a, gsk-3alpha, gsk-3α, gsk-3b, gsk-3beta, gsk-3β, inhibitors, inhibits, highly, selective, potent, organoids, Tocris Bioscience, Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Inhibitor products

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