CNQX

Cat. No. 0190

CNQX C9H4N4O4 [115066-14-3]

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Chemical Name: 6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione

Biological Activity

Potent AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist. Also antagonist at glycine modulatory site on NMDA receptor complex. CNQX disodium salt (Cat. No. 1045) also available.

Technical Data

M.Wt:
232.16
Formula:
C9H4N4O4
Solubility:
Soluble to 100 mM in DMSO
Purity:
>99 %
Storage:
Store at RT
CAS No:
115066-14-3

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.

Certificate of Analysis / Safety Data Sheet

Certificate of Analysis: View current batch
Select another batch:
Safety Data Sheet: View Safety Data Sheet

King et al (1992) Antagonism of synaptic potentials in ventral horn neurones by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione: a study in the rat spinal cord in vitro. Br.J.Pharmacol. 107 375. PMID: 1358390.

Long et al (1990) Effect of 6-cyano-2,3-dihydroxy-7-nitro-quinoxaline (CNQX) on dorsal root-, NMDA-, kainate and quisqualate-mediated depolarization of rat motoneurones in vitro. Br.J.Pharmacol. 100 850. PMID: 1976402.

Watkins et al (1990) Structure-activity relationships in the development of excitatory amino acid receptor agonists and competitive antagonists. TiPS 11 25. PMID: 2155495.

Honore et al (1988) Quinoxalinediones: potent competitive non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists. Science 241 701. PMID: 2899909.

If you know of a relevant reference for this product please let us know.

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for CNQX include:

Gao et al (2015) Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the excitatory-inhibitory imbalance during the critical period of postnatal respiratory development in the rat. Physiol Rep 3. PMID: 26603459.

Gu et al (2015) miR-26a and miR-384-5p are required for LTP maintenance and spine enlargement. Nat Commun 6 6789. PMID: 25858512.

Medrihan et al (2015) Asynchronous GABA Release Is a Key Determinant of Tonic Inhibition and Controls Neuronal Excitability: A Study in the Synapsin II-/- Mouse. Cereb Cortex 25 3356. PMID: 24962993.

Neuner et al (2015) TRPC3 channels critically regulate hippocampal excitability and contextual fear memory. Behav Brain Res 281 69. PMID: 25513972.

Sexton and Gelder (2015) G-Protein Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Minimally Regulates Melanopsin Activity in Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells. PLoS One 10 e0128690. PMID: 26069965.

Zhang et al (2015) Presynaptic mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity: effects on vesicular release, vesicle clustering and mitochondria number. PLoS One 10 e0127461. PMID: 26011056.

Zou et al (2015) Oligodendrocytes Are Targets of HIV-1 Tat: NMDA and AMPA Receptor-Mediated Effects on Survival and Development. J Neurosci 35 11384. PMID: 26269645.

Easton et al (2014) Genetic elimination of GABAergic neurotransmission reveals two distinct pacemakers for spontaneous waves of activity in the developing mouse cortex. J Neurosci 34 3854. PMID: 24623764.

Qiu et al (2014) GluA1 phosphorylation contributes to postsynaptic amplification of neuropathic pain in the insular cortex. J Neurosci 34 13505. PMID: 25274827.

Röther et al (2014) Dynamic properties of the alkaline vesicle population at hippocampal synapses. PLoS One 9 e102723. PMID: 25079223.

Rossi et al (2014) Interleukin-1β causes excitotoxic neurodegeneration and multiple sclerosis disease progression by activating the apoptotic protein p53. Mol Neurodegener 9 56. PMID: 25495224.

Tamura et al (2014) Both neurons and astrocytes exhibited tetrodotoxin-resistant metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent spontaneous slow Ca2+ oscillations in striatum. PLoS One 9 e85351. PMID: 24454845.

Tang et al (2014) Lactate-mediated glia-neuronal signalling in the mammalian brain. Nat Commun 5 3284. PMID: 24518663.

Wang et al (2014) Postsynaptic target specific synaptic dysfunctions in the CA3 area of BACE1 knockout mice. PLoS One 9 e92279. PMID: 24637500.

Wang et al (2014) Accumulation of GABAergic neurons, causing a focal ambient GABA gradient, and downregulation of KCC2 are induced during microgyrus formation in a mouse model of polymicrogyria. Cereb Cortex 24 1088. PMID: 23246779.

Berlinguer-Palmini et al (2013) GPR35 activation reduces Ca2+ transients and contributes to the kynurenic acid-dependent reduction of synaptic activity at CA3-CA1 synapses. PLoS One 8 e82180. PMID: 24312407.

Hur and Park (2013) Long-term potentiation of excitatory synaptic strength in spinothalamic tract neurons of the rat spinal cord. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 17 553. PMID: 24381506.

Neuser et al (2013) Region-specific integration of embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal precursors into a pre-existing neuronal circuit. PLoS One 8 e66497. PMID: 23840491.

Pi et al (2013) Cortical interneurons that specialize in disinhibitory control. Nature 503 521. PMID: 24097352.

Stephenson-Jones et al (2013) Independent circuits in the basal ganglia for the evaluation and selection of actions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110 E3670. PMID: 24003130.

Tyagarajan et al (2013) Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and glycogen synthase kinase 3β regulate gephyrin postsynaptic aggregation and GABAergic synaptic function in a calpain-dependent mechanism. J Biol Chem 288 9634. PMID: 23408424.

Yamagata et al (2013) Regulation of ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase by NMDA-receptor-induced seizure activity in cortical slices. Brain Res 1507 1. PMID: 23419897.

Yu et al (2013) Hyperactivity of ON-type retinal ganglion cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PLoS One 8 e76049. PMID: 24069457.

Zemoura et al (2013) Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation controls cell surface expression of γ-aminobutyric acid, type B receptors. J Biol Chem 288 34897. PMID: 24114844.

Akerboom et al (2012) Optimization of a GCaMP calcium indicator for neural activity imaging. J Neurosci 32 13819. PMID: 23035093.

Arenkiel et al (2012) Activity-induced remodeling of olfactory bulb microcircuits revealed by monosynaptic tracing. PLoS One 6 e29423. PMID: 22216277.

He et al (2012) Increased Kv1 channel expression may contribute to decreased sIPSC frequency following chronic inhibition of NR2B-containing NMDAR. Neuropsychopharmacology 37 1338. PMID: 22218089.

Heinrich et al (2012) K+ depolarization evokes ATP, adenosine and glutamate release from glia in rat hippocampus: a microelectrode biosensor study. Br J Pharmacol 167 1003. PMID: 22394324.

Kolind et al (2012) Opposing Effects of Intrinsic Conductance and Correlated Synaptic Input on V-Fluctuations during Network Activity. Front Comput Neurosci 6 40. PMID: 22783184.

Upreti et al (2012) Altered neurotransmitter release, vesicle recycling and presynaptic structure in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain 135 869. PMID: 22344585.

Ali (2011) CB1 modulation of temporally distinct synaptic facilitation among local circuit interneurons mediated by N-type calcium channels in CA1. J Neurophysiol 105 1051. PMID: 21123660.

Bright et al (2011) Profound desensitization by ambient GABA limits activation of δ-containing GABAA receptors during spillover. J Neurosci 31 753. PMID: 21228184.

Case et al (2011) Functional refinement in the projection from ventral cochlear nucleus to lateral superior olive precedes hearing onset in rat. PLoS One 6 e20756. PMID: 21694776.

Khalilov et al (2011) Enhanced Synaptic Activity and Epileptiform Events in the Embryonic KCC2 Deficient Hippocampus. Front Cell Neurosci 5 23. PMID: 22065950.

Kopach et al (2011) Inflammation alters trafficking of extrasynaptic AMPA receptors in tonically firing lamina II neurons of the rat spinal dorsal horn. Pain 152 912. PMID: 21282008.

Mark et al (2011) Delayed postnatal loss of P/Q-type calcium channels recapitulates the absence epilepsy, dyskinesia, and ataxia phenotypes of genomic Cacna1a mutations. J Neurosci 31 4311. PMID: 21411672.

Parker et al (2011) Attenuating GABA(A) receptor signaling in dopamine neurons selectively enhances reward learning and alters risk preference in mice. J Neurosci 31 17103. PMID: 22114279.

Welzel et al (2011) Systematic heterogeneity of fractional vesicle pool sizes and release rates of hippocampal synapses. Biophys J 100 593. PMID: 21281573.

Zhu et al (2011) Suppression of PKR promotes network excitability and enhanced cognition by interferon-γ-mediated disinhibition. Cell 147 1384. PMID: 22153080.

Zschenderlein et al (2011) Capsaicin-induced changes in LTP in the lateral amygdala are mediated by TRPV1. PLoS One 6 e16116. PMID: 21249195.

Dimitrov and Usdin (2010) Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues modulates the mouse hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis via paraventricular glutamatergic neurons. J Comp Neurol 518 4375. PMID: 20853513.

Dreyfus et al (2010) Selective T-type calcium channel block in thalamic neurons reveals channel redundancy and physiological impact of I(T)window. J Neurosci 30 99. PMID: 20053892.

Goffin et al (2010) Dopamine-dependent tuning of striatal inhibitory synaptogenesis. J Neurosci 30 2935. PMID: 20181591.

Sun et al (2010) Canonical TGF-beta signaling is required for the balance of excitatory/inhibitory transmission within the hippocampus and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle. J Neurosci 30 6025. PMID: 20427661.

Welzel et al (2010) Synapse clusters are preferentially formed by synapses with large recycling pool sizes. PLoS One 5 e13514. PMID: 20976002.

Xu et al (2010) High precision and fast functional mapping of cortical circuitry through a novel combination of voltage sensitive dye imaging and laser scanning photostimulation. J Neurophysiol 103 2301. PMID: 20130040.

Chao et al (2009) Na+ mechanism of delta-opioid receptor induced protection from anoxic K+ leakage in the cortex. Cell Mol Life Sci 66 1105. PMID: 19189047.

Chudomel et al (2009) Age- and gender-related differences in GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic currents in GABAergic neurons of the substantia nigra reticulata in the rat. Neuroscience 163 155. PMID: 19531372.

Chuhma et al (2009) Dopamine neuron glutamate cotransmission: frequency-dependent modulation in the mesoventromedial projection. Neuroscience 164 1068. PMID: 19729052.

Kitagawa et al (2009) Prediction and validation of a mechanism to control the threshold for inhibitory synaptic plasticity. Mol Syst Biol 5 280. PMID: 19536203.

Costa et al (2008) Electrophysiology and pharmacology of striatal neuronal dysfunction induced by mitochondrial complex I inhibition. J Neurosci 28 8040. PMID: 18685029.

Frischknecht et al (2008) Activity-induced synaptic capture and exocytosis of the neuronal serine protease neurotrypsin. J Neurosci 28 1568. PMID: 18272678.

Gitler et al (2008) Synapsin IIa controls the reserve pool of glutamatergic synaptic vesicles. J Neurosci 28 10835. PMID: 18945891.

Hong et al (2008) Glutamatergic transmission is sustained at a later period of development of medial nucleus of the trapezoid body-lateral superior olive synapses in circling mice. J Neurosci 28 13003. PMID: 19036993.

Baldelli et al (2007) Lack of synapsin I reduces the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles at central inhibitory synapses. J Neurosci 27 13520. PMID: 18057210.

Marinelli et al (2007) N-arachidonoyl-dopamine tunes synaptic transmission onto dopaminergic neurons by activating both cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors. Neuropsychopharmacology 32 298. PMID: 16760924.

Smetana et al (2007) Muscarinic receptor activation elicits sustained, recurring depolarizations in reticulospinal neurons. J Neurophysiol 97 3181. PMID: 17344371.

Woo et al (2007) Neuregulin-1 enhances depolarization-induced GABA release. Neuron 54 599. PMID: 17521572.

Xia et al (2007) Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in retinal ganglion cells. J Neurosci 27 12221. PMID: 17989288.

Xu et al (2007) Calpain-mediated mGluR1alpha truncation: a key step in excitotoxicity. Neuron 53 399. PMID: 17270736.

Amadoro et al (2006) NMDA receptor mediates tau-induced neurotoxicity by calpain and ERK/MAPK activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103 2892. PMID: 16477009.

Bäckström and Hyytiä (2006) Ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonism attenuates cue-induced cocaine seeking. Neuropsychopharmacology 31 778. PMID: 16123768.

Kato et al (2006) Direct GABAergic and glycinergic inhibition of the substantia gelatinosa from the rostral ventromedial medulla revealed by in vivo patch-clamp analysis in rats. J Neurosci 26 1787. PMID: 16467527.

Roberto et al (2006) Chronic ethanol exposure and protracted abstinence alter NMDA receptors in central amygdala. Neuropsychopharmacology 31 988. PMID: 16052244.

Hamilton et al (2005) Properties of external plexiform layer interneurons in mouse olfactory bulb slices. Neuroscience 133 819. PMID: 15896912.

Melyan et al (2004) Metabotropic regulation of intrinsic excitability by synaptic activation of kainate receptors. J Neurosci 24 4530. PMID: 15140923.

Moran et al (2004) Opioid-like actions of neuropeptide Y in rat substantia gelatinosa: Y1 suppression of inhibition and Y2 suppression of excitation. J Neurophysiol 92 3266. PMID: 15295007.

Wu et al (2004) Electrophysiological, pharmacological, and molecular evidence for alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat midbrain dopamine neurons. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 311 80. PMID: 15178698.

Nakatsuka et al (2003) Distinct roles of P2X receptors in modulating glutamate release at different primary sensory synapses in rat spinal cord. J Neurophysiol 89 3243. PMID: 12783958.

Thomet et al (2000) A novel positive allosteric modulator of the GABA(A) receptor: the action of (+)-ROD188. Br J Pharmacol 131 843. PMID: 11030736.

Dunaevsky et al (1999) Developmental regulation of spine motility in the mammalian central nervous system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96 13438. PMID: 10557339.

Markram and Sakmann (1994) Calcium transients in dendrites of neocortical neurons evoked by single subthreshold excitatory postsynaptic potentials via low-voltage-activated calcium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91 5207. PMID: 8197208.

Do you know of a great paper that uses CNQX from Tocris? If so please let us know.show all ▼show less ▲

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