CNQX

Cat. No. 0190

CNQX C9H4N4O4 [115066-14-3]

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Chemical Name: 6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione

Biological Activity

Potent AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist. Also antagonist at glycine modulatory site on NMDA receptor complex. CNQX disodium salt (Cat. No. 1045) also available.

Technical Data

M.Wt:
232.16
Formula:
C9H4N4O4
Solubility:
Soluble to 100 mM in DMSO
Purity:
>99 %
Storage:
Store at RT
CAS No:
115066-14-3

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet / Safety Data Sheet

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
Select another batch:

King et al (1992) Antagonism of synaptic potentials in ventral horn neurones by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione: a study in the rat spinal cord in vitro. Br.J.Pharmacol. 107 375. PMID: 1358390.

Long et al (1990) Effect of 6-cyano-2,3-dihydroxy-7-nitro-quinoxaline (CNQX) on dorsal root-, NMDA-, kainate and quisqualate-mediated depolarization of rat motoneurones in vitro. Br.J.Pharmacol. 100 850. PMID: 1976402.

Watkins et al (1990) Structure-activity relationships in the development of excitatory amino acid receptor agonists and competitive antagonists. TiPS 11 25. PMID: 2155495.

Honore et al (1988) Quinoxalinediones: potent competitive non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists. Science 241 701. PMID: 2899909.

If you know of a relevant reference for this product please let us know.

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for CNQX include:

Baquero et al (2015) Developmental changes in synaptic distribution in arcuate nucleus neurons. Glia 35 8558. PMID: 26041922.

Bernard and Zhang (2015) MARK/Par1 Kinase Is Activated Downstream of NMDA Receptors through a PKA-Dependent Mechanism. PLoS One 10 e0124816. PMID: 25932647.

Birnbaum et al (2015) Calcium flux-independent NMDA receptor activity is required for Aβ oligomer-induced synaptic loss. PLoS One 6 e1791. PMID: 26086964.

Bryant et al (2015) Cholinergic control of γ power in the midbrain spatial attention network. J Neurosci 35 761. PMID: 25589769.

Campbell et al (2015) GABAergic disinhibition and impaired KCC2 cotransporter activity underlie tumor-associated epilepsy. Nat Commun 63 23. PMID: 25066727.

Campbell et al (2015) Functional changes in glutamate transporters and astrocyte biophysical properties in a rodent model of focal cortical dysplasia. Front Cell Neurosci 8 425. PMID: 25565960.

Ciani et al (2015) Wnt signalling tunes neurotransmitter release by directly targeting Synaptotagmin-1. Front Neurol 6 8302. PMID: 26400647.

Connor et al (2015) β-Arrestin-2 knockout prevents development of cellular μ-opioid receptor tolerance but does not affect opioid-withdrawal-related adaptations in single PAG neurons. Elife 172 492. PMID: 24597632.

Curcio et al (2015) Brain ischemia downregulates the neuroprotective GDNF-Ret signaling by a calpain-dependent mechanism in cultured hippocampal neurons. Eneuro 6 e1645. PMID: 25675305.

Duc et al (2015) Bursting reverberation as a multiscale neuronal network process driven by synaptic depression-facilitation. J Neurosci 10 e0124694. PMID: 26017681.

Gao et al (2015) Dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and activity of mature granule cells born following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the rat. Front Cell Neurosci 9 384. PMID: 26500490.

Gao et al (2015) Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the excitatory-inhibitory imbalance during the critical period of postnatal respiratory development in the rat. Physiol Rep 3. PMID: 26603459.

Garthwaite et al (2015) Nitric oxide targets oligodendrocytes and promotes their morphological differentiation. Front Cell Neurosci 63 383. PMID: 25327839.

Gu et al (2015) miR-26a and miR-384-5p are required for LTP maintenance and spine enlargement. Nat Commun 6 6789. PMID: 25858512.

Haselmann et al (2015) Interactions of Human Autoantibodies with Hippocampal GABAergic Synaptic Transmission - Analyzing Antibody-Induced Effects ex vivo. Cell Death Dis 6 136. PMID: 26124746.

Jacoby et al (2015) An Amacrine Cell Circuit for Signaling Steady Illumination in the Retina. Br J Pharmacol 13 2663. PMID: 26711334.

Jaiswal et al (2015) Reduction in focal ictal activity following transplantation of MGE interneurons requires expression of the GABAA receptor α4 subunit. Cell Death Dis 9 127. PMID: 25914623.

Kirwan et al (2015) Development and function of human cerebral cortex neural networks from pluripotent stem cells in vitro. Development 142 3178. PMID: 26395144.

Lamanna et al (2015) A pre-docking source for the power-law behavior of spontaneous quantal release: application to the analysis of LTP. Cell Rep 9 44. PMID: 25741239.

Medrihan et al (2015) Asynchronous GABA Release Is a Key Determinant of Tonic Inhibition and Controls Neuronal Excitability: A Study in the Synapsin II-/- Mouse. Cereb Cortex 25 3356. PMID: 24962993.

Neuner et al (2015) TRPC3 channels critically regulate hippocampal excitability and contextual fear memory. Behav Brain Res 281 69. PMID: 25513972.

Polito et al (2015) Selective Effects of PDE10A Inhibitors on Striatopallidal Neurons Require Phosphatase Inhibition by DARPP-32(1,2,3). J Neurosci 2. PMID: 26465004.

Puranam et al (2015) Disruption of Fgf13 causes synaptic excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and genetic epilepsy and febrile seizures plus. J Neurosci 35 8866. PMID: 26063919.

Sengupta and Thirumalai (2015) AMPA receptor mediated synaptic excitation drives state-dependent bursting in Purkinje neurons of zebrafish larvae. J Neurophysiol 4. PMID: 26416140.

Sexton and Gelder (2015) G-Protein Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Minimally Regulates Melanopsin Activity in Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells. PLoS One 10 e0128690. PMID: 26069965.

Taylor-Burds et al (2015) Chloride Accumulators NKCC1 and AE2 in Mouse GnRH Neurons: Implications for GABAA Mediated Excitation. J Clin Invest 10 e0131076. PMID: 26110920.

Telese et al (2015) LRP8-Reelin-Regulated Neuronal Enhancer Signature Underlying Learning and Memory Formation. Neuron 86 696. PMID: 25892301.

Zhang et al (2015) Presynaptic mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity: effects on vesicular release, vesicle clustering and mitochondria number. PLoS One 10 e0127461. PMID: 26011056.

Zou et al (2015) Oligodendrocytes Are Targets of HIV-1 Tat: NMDA and AMPA Receptor-Mediated Effects on Survival and Development. J Neurosci 35 11384. PMID: 26269645.

Chanda et al (2014) Generation of induced neuronal cells by the single reprogramming factor ASCL1. Stem Cell Reports 3 282. PMID: 25254342.

Easton et al (2014) Genetic elimination of GABAergic neurotransmission reveals two distinct pacemakers for spontaneous waves of activity in the developing mouse cortex. J Neurosci 34 3854. PMID: 24623764.

He and Bausch (2014) Synaptic plasticity in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission following chronic memantine treatment in an in vitro model of limbic epileptogenesis. Neuropharmacology 77 379. PMID: 24184417.

Oostland et al (2014) Distinct temporal expression of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors on cerebellar granule cells in mice. J Neurophysiol 13 491. PMID: 24788088.

Pan et al (2014) Deranged NMDAergic cortico-subthalamic transmission underlies parkinsonian motor deficits. Eur J Neurosci 124 4629. PMID: 25202982.

Purohit et al (2014) The Ca2+ sensor protein swiprosin-1/EFhd2 is present in neurites and involved in kinesin-mediated transport in neurons. J Biol Chem 9 e103976. PMID: 25133820.

Qiu et al (2014) GluA1 phosphorylation contributes to postsynaptic amplification of neuropathic pain in the insular cortex. J Neurosci 34 13505. PMID: 25274827.

Röther et al (2014) Dynamic properties of the alkaline vesicle population at hippocampal synapses. PLoS One 9 e102723. PMID: 25079223.

Rossi et al (2014) Interleukin-1β causes excitotoxic neurodegeneration and multiple sclerosis disease progression by activating the apoptotic protein p53. Mol Neurodegener 9 56. PMID: 25495224.

Schönberger et al (2014) Lamina-specific contribution of glutamatergic and GABAergic potentials to hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes. J Neurosci 8 103. PMID: 25202239.

Tamura et al (2014) Both neurons and astrocytes exhibited tetrodotoxin-resistant metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent spontaneous slow Ca2+ oscillations in striatum. PLoS One 9 e85351. PMID: 24454845.

Tang et al (2014) Lactate-mediated glia-neuronal signalling in the mammalian brain. Nat Commun 5 3284. PMID: 24518663.

Wang et al (2014) Postsynaptic target specific synaptic dysfunctions in the CA3 area of BACE1 knockout mice. PLoS One 9 e92279. PMID: 24637500.

Wang et al (2014) Accumulation of GABAergic neurons, causing a focal ambient GABA gradient, and downregulation of KCC2 are induced during microgyrus formation in a mouse model of polymicrogyria. Cereb Cortex 24 1088. PMID: 23246779.

Woo et al (2014) Isoliquiritigenin, a chalcone compound, enhances spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic response. Exp Neurobiol 23 163. PMID: 24963281.

Berlinguer-Palmini et al (2013) GPR35 activation reduces Ca2+ transients and contributes to the kynurenic acid-dependent reduction of synaptic activity at CA3-CA1 synapses. PLoS One 8 e82180. PMID: 24312407.

Chanda et al (2013) Neurons generated by direct conversion of fibroblasts reproduce synaptic phenotype caused by autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110 16622. PMID: 24046374.

Gao and Derbenev (2013) Synaptic and extrasynaptic transmission of kidney-related neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. J Neurophysiol 110 2637. PMID: 24027107.

He et al (2013) Synaptic and extrasynaptic plasticity in glutamatergic circuits involving dentate granule cells following chronic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor inhibition. J Neurophysiol 109 1535. PMID: 23255721.

Hira et al (2013) In vivo optogenetic tracing of functional corticocortical connections between motor forelimb areas. J Neurosci 7 55. PMID: 23554588.

Hur and Park (2013) Long-term potentiation of excitatory synaptic strength in spinothalamic tract neurons of the rat spinal cord. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 17 553. PMID: 24381506.

Maejima et al (2013) Postnatal loss of P/Q-type channels confined to rhombic-lip-derived neurons alters synaptic transmission at the parallel fiber to purkinje cell synapse and replicates genomic Cacna1a mutation phenotype of ataxia and seizures in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 33 5162. PMID: 23516282.

Medrihan et al (2013) Synapsin II desynchronizes neurotransmitter release at inhibitory synapses by interacting with presynaptic calcium channels. Nat Commun 4 1512. PMID: 23443540.

Neuser et al (2013) Region-specific integration of embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal precursors into a pre-existing neuronal circuit. PLoS One 8 e66497. PMID: 23840491.

Pi et al (2013) Cortical interneurons that specialize in disinhibitory control. Nature 503 521. PMID: 24097352.

Siddoway et al (2013) An essential role for inhibitor-2 regulation of protein phosphatase-1 in synaptic scaling. J Neurophysiol 33 11206. PMID: 23825423.

Stephenson-Jones et al (2013) Independent circuits in the basal ganglia for the evaluation and selection of actions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110 E3670. PMID: 24003130.

Tamburri et al (2013) NMDA-receptor activation but not ion flux is required for amyloid-β induced synaptic depression. PLoS One 8 e65350. PMID: 23750255.

Taylor et al (2013) Axonal translation of β-catenin regulates synaptic vesicle dynamics. J Neurosci 33 5584. PMID: 23536073.

Tyagarajan et al (2013) Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and glycogen synthase kinase 3β regulate gephyrin postsynaptic aggregation and GABAergic synaptic function in a calpain-dependent mechanism. J Biol Chem 288 9634. PMID: 23408424.

Viemari et al (2013) β-Noradrenergic receptor activation specifically modulates the generation of sighs in vivo and in vitro. EMBO J 7 179. PMID: 24273495.

Yamagata et al (2013) Regulation of ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase by NMDA-receptor-induced seizure activity in cortical slices. Brain Res 1507 1. PMID: 23419897.

Yu et al (2013) Hyperactivity of ON-type retinal ganglion cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PLoS One 8 e76049. PMID: 24069457.

Zemoura et al (2013) Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation controls cell surface expression of γ-aminobutyric acid, type B receptors. J Biol Chem 288 34897. PMID: 24114844.

Akerboom et al (2012) Optimization of a GCaMP calcium indicator for neural activity imaging. J Neurosci 32 13819. PMID: 23035093.

Arenkiel et al (2012) Activity-induced remodeling of olfactory bulb microcircuits revealed by monosynaptic tracing. PLoS One 6 e29423. PMID: 22216277.

He et al (2012) Increased Kv1 channel expression may contribute to decreased sIPSC frequency following chronic inhibition of NR2B-containing NMDAR. Neuropsychopharmacology 37 1338. PMID: 22218089.

Heinrich et al (2012) K+ depolarization evokes ATP, adenosine and glutamate release from glia in rat hippocampus: a microelectrode biosensor study. Br J Pharmacol 167 1003. PMID: 22394324.

Kolind et al (2012) Opposing Effects of Intrinsic Conductance and Correlated Synaptic Input on V-Fluctuations during Network Activity. Front Comput Neurosci 6 40. PMID: 22783184.

Lee et al (2012) Lovastatin modulates glycogen synthase kinase-3β pathway and inhibits mossy fiber sprouting after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Neurochem Int 7 e38789. PMID: 22761705.

Upreti et al (2012) Altered neurotransmitter release, vesicle recycling and presynaptic structure in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain 135 869. PMID: 22344585.

Ali (2011) CB1 modulation of temporally distinct synaptic facilitation among local circuit interneurons mediated by N-type calcium channels in CA1. J Neurophysiol 105 1051. PMID: 21123660.

Bright et al (2011) Profound desensitization by ambient GABA limits activation of δ-containing GABAA receptors during spillover. J Neurosci 31 753. PMID: 21228184.

Case et al (2011) Functional refinement in the projection from ventral cochlear nucleus to lateral superior olive precedes hearing onset in rat. PLoS One 6 e20756. PMID: 21694776.

Chung et al (2011) Expression and functional properties of TRPM2 channels in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra of the rat. Front Neural Circuits 106 2865. PMID: 21900507.

Couchman et al (2011) Lateral superior olive function in congenital deafness. J Neurosci 277 163. PMID: 21276842.

Kaminski et al (2011) 11-Deoxycortisol impedes GABAergic neurotransmission and induces drug-resistant status epilepticus in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 60 1098. PMID: 20883706.

Khalilov et al (2011) Enhanced Synaptic Activity and Epileptiform Events in the Embryonic KCC2 Deficient Hippocampus. Front Cell Neurosci 5 23. PMID: 22065950.

Kopach et al (2011) Inflammation alters trafficking of extrasynaptic AMPA receptors in tonically firing lamina II neurons of the rat spinal dorsal horn. Pain 152 912. PMID: 21282008.

Lam et al (2011) Leptin does not directly affect CNS serotonin neurons to influence appetite. Cell Metab 13 584. PMID: 21531340.

Lazarevic et al (2011) Extensive remodeling of the presynaptic cytomatrix upon homeostatic adaptation to network activity silencing. J Neurosci 31 10189. PMID: 21752995.

Mahajan et al (2011) Exposure of neurons to excitotoxic levels of glutamate induces cleavage of the RNA editing enzyme, adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2, and loss of GLUR2 editing. Neuroscience 189 305. PMID: 21620933.

Mark et al (2011) Delayed postnatal loss of P/Q-type calcium channels recapitulates the absence epilepsy, dyskinesia, and ataxia phenotypes of genomic Cacna1a mutations. J Neurosci 31 4311. PMID: 21411672.

Meehan et al (2011) A new mechanism for antiepileptic drug action: vesicular entry may mediate the effects of levetiracetam. J Biol Chem 106 1227. PMID: 21653714.

Parker et al (2011) Attenuating GABA(A) receptor signaling in dopamine neurons selectively enhances reward learning and alters risk preference in mice. J Neurosci 31 17103. PMID: 22114279.

Porcher et al (2011) Positive feedback regulation between γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor signaling and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) release in developing neurons. Front Neural Circuits 286 21667. PMID: 21474450.

Welzel et al (2011) Systematic heterogeneity of fractional vesicle pool sizes and release rates of hippocampal synapses. Biophys J 100 593. PMID: 21281573.

Zhao et al (2011) Homeostatic synaptic plasticity through changes in presynaptic calcium influx. Hear Res 31 7492. PMID: 21593333.

Zhu et al (2011) Suppression of PKR promotes network excitability and enhanced cognition by interferon-γ-mediated disinhibition. Cell 147 1384. PMID: 22153080.

Zschenderlein et al (2011) Capsaicin-induced changes in LTP in the lateral amygdala are mediated by TRPV1. PLoS One 6 e16116. PMID: 21249195.

Acuna-Goycolea et al (2010) Cannabinoids excite circadian clock neurons. J Neurosci 30 10061. PMID: 20668190.

Ben-Mabrouk and Tryba (2010) Substance P modulation of TRPC3/7 channels improves respiratory rhythm regularity and ICAN-dependent pacemaker activity. Front Cell Neurosci 31 1219. PMID: 20345918.

Dimitrov and Usdin (2010) Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues modulates the mouse hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis via paraventricular glutamatergic neurons. J Comp Neurol 518 4375. PMID: 20853513.

Dreyfus et al (2010) Selective T-type calcium channel block in thalamic neurons reveals channel redundancy and physiological impact of I(T)window. J Neurosci 30 99. PMID: 20053892.

Goffin et al (2010) Dopamine-dependent tuning of striatal inhibitory synaptogenesis. J Neurosci 30 2935. PMID: 20181591.

Gonzalez-Islas et al (2010) GABAergic synaptic scaling in embryonic motoneurons is mediated by a shift in the chloride reversal potential. J Neurosci 30 13016. PMID: 20881119.

Noh et al (2010) Glutamate co-release at GABA/glycinergic synapses is crucial for the refinement of an inhibitory map. Neuropharmacology 13 232. PMID: 20081852.

Oh et al (2010) Substitution of 5-HT1A receptor signaling by a light-activated G protein-coupled receptor. J Neurosci 285 30825. PMID: 20643652.

Sun et al (2010) Canonical TGF-beta signaling is required for the balance of excitatory/inhibitory transmission within the hippocampus and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle. J Neurosci 30 6025. PMID: 20427661.

Welzel et al (2010) Synapse clusters are preferentially formed by synapses with large recycling pool sizes. PLoS One 5 e13514. PMID: 20976002.

Xu et al (2010) High precision and fast functional mapping of cortical circuitry through a novel combination of voltage sensitive dye imaging and laser scanning photostimulation. J Neurophysiol 103 2301. PMID: 20130040.

Yeh et al (2010) SV2 mediates entry of tetanus neurotoxin into central neurons. PLoS Pathog 6 e1001207. PMID: 21124874.

Chao et al (2009) Na+ mechanism of delta-opioid receptor induced protection from anoxic K+ leakage in the cortex. Cell Mol Life Sci 66 1105. PMID: 19189047.

Chudomel et al (2009) Age- and gender-related differences in GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic currents in GABAergic neurons of the substantia nigra reticulata in the rat. Neuroscience 163 155. PMID: 19531372.

Chuhma et al (2009) Dopamine neuron glutamate cotransmission: frequency-dependent modulation in the mesoventromedial projection. Neuroscience 164 1068. PMID: 19729052.

Kitagawa et al (2009) Prediction and validation of a mechanism to control the threshold for inhibitory synaptic plasticity. Mol Syst Biol 5 280. PMID: 19536203.

Prat et al (2009) Mutation of the protein kinase C site in borna disease virus phosphoprotein abrogates viral interference with neuronal signaling and restores normal synaptic activity. J Neurosci 5 e1000425. PMID: 19424436.

Tsuriel et al (2009) Exchange and redistribution dynamics of the cytoskeleton of the active zone molecule bassoon. PLoS One 29 351. PMID: 19144835.

Yeo et al (2009) Novel repression of Kcc2 transcription by REST-RE-1 controls developmental switch in neuronal chloride. J Neurosci 29 14652. PMID: 19923298.

Costa et al (2008) Electrophysiology and pharmacology of striatal neuronal dysfunction induced by mitochondrial complex I inhibition. J Neurosci 28 8040. PMID: 18685029.

Darbin and Wichmann (2008) Effects of striatal GABA A-receptor blockade on striatal and cortical activity in monkeys. Nat Neurosci 99 1294. PMID: 18216224.

Frischknecht et al (2008) Activity-induced synaptic capture and exocytosis of the neuronal serine protease neurotrypsin. J Neurosci 28 1568. PMID: 18272678.

Gitler et al (2008) Synapsin IIa controls the reserve pool of glutamatergic synaptic vesicles. J Neurosci 28 10835. PMID: 18945891.

Guire et al (2008) Recruitment of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors during synaptic potentiation is regulated by CaM-kinase I. J Neurosci 28 6000. PMID: 18524905.

Hong et al (2008) Glutamatergic transmission is sustained at a later period of development of medial nucleus of the trapezoid body-lateral superior olive synapses in circling mice. J Neurosci 28 13003. PMID: 19036993.

Lin et al (2008) Integrin regulation of cytoplasmic calcium in excitatory neurons depends upon glutamate receptors and release from intracellular stores. Cerebellum 37 770. PMID: 18289871.

Petzold et al (2008) Coupling of neural activity to blood flow in olfactory glomeruli is mediated by astrocytic pathways. Neuron 58 897. PMID: 18579080.

Pozzi et al (2008) Activity-dependent phosphorylation of Ser187 is required for SNAP-25-negative modulation of neuronal voltage-gated calcium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105 323. PMID: 18162553.

Baldelli et al (2007) Lack of synapsin I reduces the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles at central inhibitory synapses. J Neurosci 27 13520. PMID: 18057210.

Limon et al (2007) Properties of GluR3 receptors tagged with GFP at the amino or carboxyl terminus. Front Neural Circuits 104 15526. PMID: 17881566.

Marinelli et al (2007) N-arachidonoyl-dopamine tunes synaptic transmission onto dopaminergic neurons by activating both cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors. Neuropsychopharmacology 32 298. PMID: 16760924.

Smetana et al (2007) Muscarinic receptor activation elicits sustained, recurring depolarizations in reticulospinal neurons. J Neurophysiol 97 3181. PMID: 17344371.

Sossa et al (2007) AMPAR exocytosis through NO modulation of PICK1. Neuropharmacology 53 92. PMID: 17555774.

Ting et al (2007) Amyloid precursor protein overexpression depresses excitatory transmission through both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104 353. PMID: 17185415.

Woo et al (2007) Neuregulin-1 enhances depolarization-induced GABA release. Neuron 54 599. PMID: 17521572.

Xia et al (2007) Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in retinal ganglion cells. J Neurosci 27 12221. PMID: 17989288.

Xu et al (2007) Calpain-mediated mGluR1alpha truncation: a key step in excitotoxicity. Neuron 53 399. PMID: 17270736.

Amadoro et al (2006) NMDA receptor mediates tau-induced neurotoxicity by calpain and ERK/MAPK activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103 2892. PMID: 16477009.

Bäckström and Hyytiä (2006) Ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonism attenuates cue-induced cocaine seeking. Neuropsychopharmacology 31 778. PMID: 16123768.

Kato et al (2006) Direct GABAergic and glycinergic inhibition of the substantia gelatinosa from the rostral ventromedial medulla revealed by in vivo patch-clamp analysis in rats. J Neurosci 26 1787. PMID: 16467527.

Nakazawa et al (2006) NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation modulates fear learning as well as amygdaloid synaptic plasticity. Biophys J 25 2867. PMID: 16710293.

Qiu et al (2006) Differential reelin-induced enhancement of NMDA and AMPA receptor activity in the adult hippocampus. J Neurosci 26 12943. PMID: 17167084.

Rancillac et al (2006) Glutamatergic Control of Microvascular Tone by Distinct GABA Neurons in the Cerebellum. J Neurosci 26 6997. PMID: 16807329.

Roberto et al (2006) Chronic ethanol exposure and protracted abstinence alter NMDA receptors in central amygdala. Neuropsychopharmacology 31 988. PMID: 16052244.

Hamilton et al (2005) Properties of external plexiform layer interneurons in mouse olfactory bulb slices. Neuroscience 133 819. PMID: 15896912.

Karst and Joels (2005) Corticosterone slowly enhances miniature excitatory postsynaptic current amplitude in mice CA1 hippocampal cells. J Neurosci 94 3479. PMID: 16033944.

Kinney (2005) GAT-3 transporters regulate inhibition in the neocortex. Mol Cell Neurosci 94 4533. PMID: 16135550.

Micheva and Smith (2005) Strong effects of subphysiological temperature on the function and plasticity of mammalian presynaptic terminals. J Neurophysiol 25 7481. PMID: 16107635.

Sinagra et al (2005) Reelin, very-low-density lipoprotein receptor, and apolipoprotein E receptor 2 control somatic NMDA receptor composition during hippocampal maturation in vitro. PLoS One 25 6127. PMID: 15987942.

Ying and Goldstein (2005) Propofol suppresses synaptic responsiveness of somatosensory relay neurons to excitatory input by potentiating GABA(A) receptor chloride channels. Mol Pain 1 2. PMID: 15813991.

Fukui and Ohmori (2004) Tonotopic gradients of membrane and synaptic properties for neurons of the chicken nucleus magnocellularis. PLoS One 24 7514. PMID: 15329398.

Liu et al (2004) Astrocyte-mediated activation of neuronal kainate receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101 3172. PMID: 14766987.

Melyan et al (2004) Metabotropic regulation of intrinsic excitability by synaptic activation of kainate receptors. J Neurosci 24 4530. PMID: 15140923.

Moran et al (2004) Opioid-like actions of neuropeptide Y in rat substantia gelatinosa: Y1 suppression of inhibition and Y2 suppression of excitation. J Neurophysiol 92 3266. PMID: 15295007.

Wu et al (2004) Electrophysiological, pharmacological, and molecular evidence for alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat midbrain dopamine neurons. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 311 80. PMID: 15178698.

Fagiolini et al (2003) Separable features of visual cortical plasticity revealed by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A signaling. J Neurophysiol 100 2854. PMID: 12591944.

Kitano et al (2003) Direct interaction and functional coupling between metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 and voltage-sensitive Cav2.1 Ca2+ channel. J Biol Chem 278 25101. PMID: 12704197.

Nakatsuka et al (2003) Distinct roles of P2X receptors in modulating glutamate release at different primary sensory synapses in rat spinal cord. J Neurophysiol 89 3243. PMID: 12783958.

Thomet et al (2000) A novel positive allosteric modulator of the GABA(A) receptor: the action of (+)-ROD188. Br J Pharmacol 131 843. PMID: 11030736.

Dunaevsky et al (1999) Developmental regulation of spine motility in the mammalian central nervous system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96 13438. PMID: 10557339.

Lledo et al (1996) Mice deficient for prion protein exhibit normal neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93 2403. PMID: 8637886.

Raman and Trussell (1995) Concentration-jump analysis of voltage-dependent conductances activated by glutamate and kainate in neurons of the avian cochlear nucleus. PLoS Pathog 69 1868. PMID: 8580330.

Yokoi et al (1995) Refinement of odor molecule tuning by dendrodendritic synaptic inhibition in the olfactory bulb. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92 3371. PMID: 7724568.

Markram and Sakmann (1994) Calcium transients in dendrites of neocortical neurons evoked by single subthreshold excitatory postsynaptic potentials via low-voltage-activated calcium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91 5207. PMID: 8197208.

Sinnayah et al Feeding induced by cannabinoids is mediated independently of the melanocortin system. PLoS One 3 e2202. PMID: 18493584.

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Parkinson's disease: Neurobiology and Therapeutic Strategies

Written by Anthony H.V. Schapira

Parkinson's Life Science Poster

Our Parkinson's disease (PD) poster summarizes the neurobiology of the disease, and highlights current therapeutic treatments for symptomatic PD. Request copy or view PDF today.

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Antidepressants - Current and Future Targets

Written by P. Skolnich et al

Depression Life Science Poster

Our Depression poster highlights presynaptic and postsynaptic targets for the potential treatment of major depressive disorder. Request copy or view PDF today.

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Therapeutic Strategies in Schizophrenia

Written by J. Lieberman

Schizophrenia Life Science Poster

Our Schizophrenia poster higlights the targets and pathways representing the most promising strategies to pursue for novel drug development. Request copy today.

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Alzheimer's Disease: Neurobiology and Drug Targets

Written by Alan Palmer

Alzheimer's Life Science Poster

Our Alzheimer's disease poster summarizes the structural and functional changes observed in the progression of this neurodegenerative disease. Request copy or view PDF today.

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New Products in this Area

PEAQX tetrasodium salt

Potent NMDA receptor antagonist; NR2A selective

cis-6-Hydroxynorketamine hydrochloride

Metabolite of ketamine (Cat.No. 3131); antidepressive

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Bio-Techne Events

ASCB 2016

ASCB 2016

December 3 - 7, 2016

San Francisco, CA,

Booth: 314