Picrotoxin

Cat. No. 1128

Picrotoxin C30H34O13 [124-87-8]

Price and Availability

For Picrotoxin pricing & availability please select your country from the drop down menu:
Submit
By clicking submit you agree to accept a cookie from Tocris Bioscience. For details, please read our privacy and cookie policy.

Biological Activity

GABAA receptor antagonist; potent CNS stimulant.

Technical Data

M.Wt:
602.59
Formula:
C30H34O13
Solubility:
Soluble to 50 mM in ethanol with gentle warming and to 100 mM in DMSO
Storage:
Store at RT
CAS No:
124-87-8

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet / Safety Data Sheet

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
Select another batch:

Ette et al (1999) Picrotoxin blockade of inverterbrate glutamate-gated chloride channels: subunit dependence and evidence for binding within the pore. J.Neurochem. 72 318. PMID: 9886084.

Dillon et al (1995) Enhancement by GABA of the association rate of picrotoxin and tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate to the rat cloned α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor subtype. Br.J.Pharmacol. 115 539. PMID: 7582470.

Newland and Cull-Candy (1992) On the mechanism of action of picrotoxin on GABA receptor channels in dissociated sympathetic neurones of the rat. J.Physiol. 447 191. PMID: 1317428.

Merck Index 12 7570.

If you know of a relevant reference for this product please let us know.

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Picrotoxin include:

Dennis et al (2016) Activation of Muscarinic M1 Acetylcholine Receptors Induces Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampus. J Neurosci 26 414. PMID: 26472558.

Pan et al (2016) Postnatal development of the electrophysiological properties of somatostatin interneurons in the anterior cingulate cortex of mice. Neuron 6 28137. PMID: 27319800.

Arama et al (2015) GABAA receptor activity shapes the formation of inhibitory synapses between developing medium spiny neurons. Physiol Rep 9 290. PMID: 26300728.

Dobson et al (2015) Caffeine Modulates Vesicle Release and Recovery at Cerebellar Parallel Fibre Terminals, Independently of Calcium and Cyclic AMP Signalling. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 10 e0125974. PMID: 25933382.

Dobson and Bellamy (2015) Localization of Presynaptic Plasticity Mechanisms Enables Functional Independence of Synaptic and Ectopic Transmission in the Cerebellum. Sci Rep 2015 602356. PMID: 26171253.

Ghosh et al (2015) Norepinephrine Modulates Pyramidal Cell Synaptic Properties in the Anterior Piriform Cortex of Mice: Age-Dependent Effects of β-adrenoceptors. Neural Plast 9 450. PMID: 26635530.

Quintana et al (2015) Acid-sensing ion channel 1a drives AMPA receptor plasticity following ischaemia and acidosis in hippocampal CA1 neurons. Front Cell Neurosci 593 4373. PMID: 26174503.

Tozzi et al (2015) Endogenous 17β-estradiol is required for activity-dependent long-term potentiation in the striatum: interaction with the dopaminergic system. Front Cell Neurosci 9 192. PMID: 26074768.

Yang and Sun (2015) Hierarchical organization of long-range circuits in the olfactory cortices. Cereb Cortex 3. PMID: 26416972.

An et al (2014) Neuritin can normalize neural deficits of Alzheimer's disease. Cell Death Dis 5 e1523. PMID: 25393479.

Chanda et al (2014) Generation of induced neuronal cells by the single reprogramming factor ASCL1. PLoS One 3 282. PMID: 25254342.

Cheadle and Biederer (2014) Activity-dependent regulation of dendritic complexity by semaphorin 3A through Farp1. J Biol Chem 34 7999. PMID: 24899721.

Eales et al (2014) The MK2/3 cascade regulates AMPAR trafficking and cognitive flexibility. Nat Commun 5 4701. PMID: 25134715.

Easton et al (2014) Genetic elimination of GABAergic neurotransmission reveals two distinct pacemakers for spontaneous waves of activity in the developing mouse cortex. J Neurosci 34 3854. PMID: 24623764.

Pandya and Pillai (2014) TrkB interacts with ErbB4 and regulates NRG1-induced NR2B phosphorylation in cortical neurons before synaptogenesis. J Neurosci 12 47. PMID: 25052836.

Simon et al (2014) Gap junction networks can generate both ripple-like and fast ripple-like oscillations. Eur J Neurosci 39 46. PMID: 24118191.

Tani et al (2014) A local glutamate-glutamine cycle sustains synaptic excitatory transmitter release. Neuron 81 888. PMID: 24559677.

Wang et al (2014) SynGAP regulates protein synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity in developing cortical networks. PLoS One 8 e83941. PMID: 24391850.

Xia et al (2014) Regulation of action potential waveforms by axonal GABAA receptors in cortical pyramidal neurons. PLoS One 9 e100968. PMID: 24971996.

Beckley et al (2013) Medial prefrontal cortex inversely regulates toluene-induced changes in markers of synaptic plasticity of mesolimbic dopamine neurons. J Neurosci 33 804. PMID: 23303956.

Brady et al (2013) Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure reduces plasticity and alters NMDA receptor subunit composition in the dentate gyrus. Cell Metab 33 1062. PMID: 23325244.

Chanda et al (2013) Neurons generated by direct conversion of fibroblasts reproduce synaptic phenotype caused by autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutation. Cell Commun Signal 110 16622. PMID: 24046374.

Hou and Yu (2013) Activity-regulated somatostatin expression reduces dendritic spine density and lowers excitatory synaptic transmission via postsynaptic somatostatin receptor 4. J Biol Chem 288 2501. PMID: 23233668.

Mameza et al (2013) SHANK3 gene mutations associated with autism facilitate ligand binding to the Shank3 ankyrin repeat region. J Neurosci 288 26697. PMID: 23897824.

Neuser et al (2013) Region-specific integration of embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal precursors into a pre-existing neuronal circuit. PLoS One 8 e66497. PMID: 23840491.

Rehak et al (2013) Low voltage activation of KCa1.1 current by Cav3-KCa1.1 complexes. PLoS One 8 e61844. PMID: 23626738.

Wang et al (2013) Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist LY379268 regulates AMPA receptor trafficking in prefrontal cortical neurons. PLoS One 8 e61787. PMID: 23593498.

Caiati et al (2012) Developmental regulation of CB1-mediated spike-time dependent depression at immature mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. Sci Rep 2 285. PMID: 22368777.

Ermolyuk et al (2012) Independent regulation of basal neurotransmitter release efficacy by variable Ca2+ influx and bouton size at small central synapses. PLoS Biol 10 e1001396. PMID: 23049481.

Hemond et al (2012) Simulated GABA synaptic input and L-type calcium channels form functional microdomains in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. J Neurosci 32 8756. PMID: 22745478.

Hnasko et al (2012) Ventral tegmental area glutamate neurons: electrophysiological properties and projections. J Neurosci 32 15076. PMID: 23100428.

Janssen et al (2012) Neuregulin directly decreases voltage-gated sodium current in hippocampal ErbB4-expressing interneurons. J Neurosci 32 13889. PMID: 23035098.

Lau and Murthy (2012) Activity-dependent regulation of inhibition via GAD67. J Physiol 32 8521. PMID: 22723692.

Lugo et al (2012) Kv4.2 knockout mice have hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits. Learn Mem 19 182. PMID: 22505720.

Olsen and Sheng (2012) NMDA receptors and BAX are essential for Aβ impairment of LTP. Sci Rep 2 225. PMID: 22355739.

Ring et al (2012) GABA maintains the proliferation of progenitors in the developing chick ciliary marginal zone and non-pigmented ciliary epithelium. PLoS One 7 e36874. PMID: 22590629.

Wills et al (2012) GluN2B subunit deletion reveals key role in acute and chronic ethanol sensitivity of glutamate synapses in bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109 E278. PMID: 22219357.

Yoon et al (2012) Mind bomb-1 is an essential modulator of long-term memory and synaptic plasticity via the Notch signaling pathway. Mol Brain 5 40. PMID: 23111145.

Etherton et al (2011) An autism-associated point mutation in the neuroligin cytoplasmic tail selectively impairs AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in hippocampus. EMBO J 30 2908. PMID: 21642956.

George et al (2011) A diversity of synaptic filters are created by temporal summation of excitation and inhibition. J Neurosci 31 14721. PMID: 21994388.

Higley et al (2011) Cholinergic interneurons mediate fast VGluT3-dependent glutamatergic transmission in the striatum. PLoS One 6 e19155. PMID: 21544206.

Lam et al (2011) Leptin does not directly affect CNS serotonin neurons to influence appetite. Stem Cell Reports 13 584. PMID: 21531340.

Lazarevic et al (2011) Extensive remodeling of the presynaptic cytomatrix upon homeostatic adaptation to network activity silencing. Mol Pain 31 10189. PMID: 21752995.

Mark et al (2011) Delayed postnatal loss of P/Q-type calcium channels recapitulates the absence epilepsy, dyskinesia, and ataxia phenotypes of genomic Cacna1a mutations. J Neurosci 31 4311. PMID: 21411672.

Parker et al (2011) Attenuating GABA(A) receptor signaling in dopamine neurons selectively enhances reward learning and alters risk preference in mice. J Neurosci 31 17103. PMID: 22114279.

Paz et al (2011) A new mode of corticothalamic transmission revealed in the Gria4(-/-) model of absence epilepsy. J Biol Chem 14 1167. PMID: 21857658.

Storey et al (2011) Molecular determinants controlling NMDA receptor synaptic incorporation. J Neurosci 31 6311. PMID: 21525271.

Straub et al (2011) Distinct functions of kainate receptors in the brain are determined by the auxiliary subunit Neto1. Nat Neurosci 14 866. PMID: 21623363.

Wang et al (2011) A critical role for GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in cortical development and function. Neuron 72 789. PMID: 22153375.

Bhat et al (2010) Inhibitory role for GABA in autoimmune inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107 2580. PMID: 20133656.

Buchanan et al (2010) Facilitation of long-term potentiation by muscarinic M(1) receptors is mediated by inhibition of SK channels. Neuron 68 948. PMID: 21145007.

Chen et al (2010) Neurexin-neuroligin cell adhesion complexes contribute to synaptotropic dendritogenesis via growth stabilization mechanisms in vivo. J Neurophysiol 67 967. PMID: 20869594.

Goffin et al (2010) Dopamine-dependent tuning of striatal inhibitory synaptogenesis. J Neurosci 30 2935. PMID: 20181591.

Jackson et al (2010) Control of cerebellar long-term potentiation by P-Rex-family guanine-nucleotide exchange factors and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. PLoS One 5 e11962. PMID: 20694145.

Kaneko et al (2010) Constitutively active H-ras accelerates multiple forms of plasticity in developing visual cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107 19026. PMID: 20937865.

Lobb et al (2010) A dynamic role for GABA receptors on the firing pattern of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. J Neurophysiol 104 403. PMID: 20445035.

Nishino et al (2010) A glycine receptor is involved in the organization of swimming movements in an invertebrate chordate. BMC Neurosci 11 6. PMID: 20085645.

Dixon et al (2009) PICK1-mediated glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) trafficking contributes to cell death in oxygen/glucose-deprived hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci 284 14230. PMID: 19321442.

Long et al (2009) Nerve Terminal GABAA Receptors Activate Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Signaling to Inhibit Voltage-gated Ca2+ Influx and Glutamate Release. J Neurosci 284 8726. PMID: 19141616.

Shiratsuchi et al (2009) Propofol inhibits pressure-stimulated macrophage phagocytosis via the GABAA receptor and dysregulation of p130cas phosphorylation. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 296 C1400. PMID: 19357231.

Sun (2009) Experience-dependent intrinsic plasticity in interneurons of barrel cortex layer IV. J Neurosci 102 2955. PMID: 19741102.

Yeo et al (2009) Novel repression of Kcc2 transcription by REST-RE-1 controls developmental switch in neuronal chloride. Nat Neurosci 29 14652. PMID: 19923298.

Andäng et al (2008) Histone H2AX-dependent GABA(A) receptor regulation of stem cell proliferation. Nature 451 460. PMID: 18185516.

Brill and Huguenard (2008) Sequential changes in AMPA receptor targeting in the developing neocortical excitatory circuit. PLoS One 28 13918. PMID: 19091980.

Costa et al (2008) Electrophysiology and pharmacology of striatal neuronal dysfunction induced by mitochondrial complex I inhibition. J Neurosci 28 8040. PMID: 18685029.

Frischknecht et al (2008) Activity-induced synaptic capture and exocytosis of the neuronal serine protease neurotrypsin. J Neurosci 28 1568. PMID: 18272678.

Jüngling et al (2008) Neuropeptide S-mediated control of fear expression and extinction: role of intercalated GABAergic neurons in the amygdala. Neuron 59 298. PMID: 18667157.

Kash et al (2008) Dopamine enhances fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the extended amygdala by a CRF-R1-dependent process. J Neurosci 28 13856. PMID: 19091975.

Manning et al (2008) NMDA receptor blockade with memantine attenuates white matter injury in a rat model of periventricular leukomalacia. J Biol Chem 28 6670. PMID: 18579741.

Root et al (2008) A presynaptic gain control mechanism fine-tunes olfactory behavior. Neuron 59 311. PMID: 18667158.

Soriano et al (2008) Specific targeting of pro-death NMDA receptor signals with differing reliance on the NR2B PDZ ligand. J Neurosci 28 10696. PMID: 18923045.

Inan et al (2006) Barrel map development relies on protein kinase A regulatory subunit II beta-mediated cAMP signaling. J Neurosci 26 4338. PMID: 16624954.

Kopp et al (2006) Insufficient sleep reversibly alters bidirectional synaptic plasticity and NMDA receptor function. J Neurosci 26 12456. PMID: 17135407.

Smith and Otis (2005) Pattern-dependent, simultaneous plasticity differentially transforms the input-output relationship of a feedforward circuit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102 14901. PMID: 16199519.

Ying and Goldstein (2005) Propofol suppresses synaptic responsiveness of somatosensory relay neurons to excitatory input by potentiating GABA(A) receptor chloride channels. Front Cell Neurosci 1 2. PMID: 15813991.

Sinnayah et al Feeding induced by cannabinoids is mediated independently of the melanocortin system. J Neurosci 3 e2202. PMID: 18493584.

Do you know of a great paper that uses Picrotoxin from Tocris? If so please let us know.show all ▼show less ▲

View Related Products by Target

View Related Products by Product Action

Keywords: Picrotoxin, supplier, GABAA, receptor, antagonists, Receptors, picrotin, Tocris Bioscience, GABAA Receptor Antagonist products

Quick Order

Find multiple products by catalog number

divider line

Pain Research Product Guide

Pain Research Product Guide

Our Pain guide highlights over 280 products for Pain research. Request copy or view PDF today.

divider line

GABA Review

Written by I. Martin et al

GABA Receptors Scientific Review

Our GABA review gives an overview of the structure and function of the GABA receptors, as well as highlighting pharmacological ligands for their study. Request copy or view PDF today.

divider line

Peripheral Sensitization

Written by Grant D. Nicol and Michael R. Vasko

Pain Life Science Poster

Our Peripheral Sensitization poster gives a summary of the excitatory and inhibitory signaling pathways involved in modulation of peripheral sensitization. Request copy or view PDF today.

divider line

Therapeutic Strategies in Schizophrenia

Written by J. Lieberman

Schizophrenia Life Science Poster

Our Schizophrenia poster higlights the targets and pathways representing the most promising strategies to pursue for novel drug development. Request copy today.

divider line

Mechanisms of Addiction

Addiction Life Science Poster

Written by Prof David Nutt, this poster summarizes the brain circuits and neurotransmitter systems that are affected by the main classes of addictive drugs. Request copy or view PDF today.

divider line

Twitter Updates

Follow @Tocris on Twitter

Follow us on Twitter!

Tocris is now actively tweeting. For regular updates on news, events and special offers, follow @Tocris on Twitter.