Tetrodotoxin

Cat. No. 1078

Tetrodotoxin C11H17N3O8 [4368-28-9]

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Alternative Name: TTx

Chemical Name: Octahydro-12-(hydroxymethyl)-2-imino-5,9:7,10a-dimethano-10aH-[1,3]dioxocino[6,5-d]pyrimidine-4,7,10,11,12-pentol

Biological Activity

Selective inhibitor of Na+ channel conductance. Binding is reversible and of high affinity (Kd = 1-10 nM). Blocks in a use-dependent manner.

Technical Data

M.Wt:
319.27
Formula:
C11H17N3O8
Solubility:
Soluble to 3 mM in acidic buffer (pH 4.8)
Storage:
Desiccate at -20°C
CAS No:
4368-28-9

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.

Certificate of Analysis / Safety Data Sheet

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Gleitz et al (1996) The protective action of tetrodotoxin and (±)-kavain on anaerobic glycolysis, ATP content and intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ of anoxic brain vesicles. Neuropharmacology 35 1743. PMID: 9076753.

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Kao (1972) Pharmacology of tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin. Fed.Proc. 31 1117. PMID: 5032475.

Merck Index 12 9382.

If you know of a relevant reference for this product please let us know.

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Tetrodotoxin include:

Prigge et al (2016) M1 ipRGCs Influence Visual Function through Retrograde Signaling in the Retina The Journal of Neuroscience 6 7184. PMID: 27383593.

Astorga et al (2015) An excitatory GABA loop operating in vivo. Front Cell Neurosci 9 275. PMID: 26236197.

Cao et al (2015) Involvement of JNK and caspase activation in hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity in neocortical neurons. Mar Drugs 13 903. PMID: 25675001.

Hou et al (2015) MicroRNA miR124 is required for the expression of homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Nat Commun 6 10045. PMID: 26620774.

Jang et al (2015) Regulation of STEP61 and tyrosine-phosphorylation of NMDA and AMPA receptors during homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Mol Brain 8 55. PMID: 26391783.

Lin et al (2015) Spexin Enhances Bowel Movement through Activating L-type Voltage-dependent Calcium Channel via Galanin Receptor 2 in Mice. Sci Rep 5 12095. PMID: 26160593.

Noh et al (2015) ATRX tolerates activity-dependent histone H3 methyl/phos switching to maintain repetitive element silencing in neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112 6820. PMID: 25538301.

Salvitti et al (2015) No evidence for a culturable bacterial tetrodotoxin producer in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda: Pleurobranchidae) and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida). Toxins (Basel) 7 255. PMID: 25635464.

Speed et al (2015) Autism-Associated Insertion Mutation (InsG) of Shank3 Exon 21 Causes Impaired Synaptic Transmission and Behavioral Deficits. J Neurosci 35 9648. PMID: 26134648.

Tang et al (2015) Stimulation-evoked Ca2+ signals in astrocytic processes at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses of adult mice are modulated by glutamate and ATP. J Neurosci 35 3016. PMID: 25698739.

Xue et al (2015) Structural elements that underlie Doc2β function during asynchronous synaptic transmission. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112 E4316. PMID: 26195798.

An et al (2014) Neuritin can normalize neural deficits of Alzheimer's disease. Cell Death Dis 5 e1523. PMID: 25393479.

Gaffaney et al (2014) Mutations that disrupt Ca2+-binding activity endow Doc2β with novel functional properties during synaptic transmission. Mol Biol Cell 25 481. PMID: 24356452.

Jiang and Zsombok (2014) Regulation of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus by SIRT1. Front Neurosci 7 270. PMID: 24454277.

Khor et al (2014) Investigating diet as the source of tetrodotoxin in Pleurobranchaea maculata. Mar Drugs 12 1. PMID: 24368566.

Kim and Ziff (2014) Calcineurin mediates synaptic scaling via synaptic trafficking of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors. PLoS Biol 12 e1001900. PMID: 24983627.

Klapoetke et al (2014) Independent optical excitation of distinct neural populations. Nat Methods 11 338. PMID: 24509633.

Lee et al (2014) Long-term depression-inducing stimuli promote cleavage of the synaptic adhesion molecule NGL-3 through NMDA receptors, matrix metalloproteinases and presenilin/γ-secretase. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 369 20130158. PMID: 24298159.

Leijon and Magnusson (2014) Physiological characterization of vestibular efferent brainstem neurons using a transgenic mouse model. PLoS One 9 e98277. PMID: 24867596.

Mohn et al (2014) Adenomatous polyposis coli protein deletion leads to cognitive and autism-like disabilities. Mol Psychiatry 19 1133. PMID: 24934177.

Potts et al (2014) Analysis of Mll1 deficiency identifies neurogenic transcriptional modules and Brn4 as a factor for direct astrocyte-to-neuron reprogramming. Neurosurgery 75 472. PMID: 24887289.

Seluzicki et al (2014) Dual PDF signaling pathways reset clocks via TIMELESS and acutely excite target neurons to control circadian behavior. PLoS Biol 12 e1001810. PMID: 24643294.

Tang et al (2014) Lactate-mediated glia-neuronal signalling in the mammalian brain. Nat Commun 5 3284. PMID: 24518663.

Thomazeau et al (2014) Prefrontal deficits in a murine model overexpressing the down syndrome candidate gene dyrk1a. J Neurosci 34 1138. PMID: 24453307.

Wang et al (2014) Innervation of enteric mast cells by primary spinal afferents in guinea pig and human small intestine. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 307 G719. PMID: 25147231.

Wang et al (2014) SynGAP regulates protein synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity in developing cortical networks. PLoS One 8 e83941. PMID: 24391850.

Wilcox et al (2014) Repeated binge-like ethanol drinking alters ethanol drinking patterns and depresses striatal GABAergic transmission. Neuropsychopharmacology 39 579. PMID: 23995582.

Alpert and Alford (2013) Synaptic NMDA receptor-dependent Ca2+ entry drives membrane potential and Ca2+ oscillations in spinal ventral horn neurons. PLoS One 8 e63154. PMID: 23646190.

Aracri et al (2013) Hypocretin (Orexin) Regulates Glutamate Input to Fast-Spiking Interneurons in Layer V of the Fr2 Region of the Murine Prefrontal Cortex. Cereb Cortex. PMID: 24297328.

Ardelt et al (2013) Stromal derived growth factor-1 (CXCL12) modulates synaptic transmission to immature neurons during post-ischemic cerebral repair. Exp Neurol 248 246. PMID: 23811016.

Broad et al (2013) Cholinergic interactions between donepezil and prucalopride in human colon: potential to treat severe intestinal dysmotility. Br J Pharmacol 170 1253. PMID: 24032987.

Chau et al (2013) Diversity and biosynthetic potential of culturable microbes associated with toxic marine animals. Mar Drugs 11 2695. PMID: 23917066.

Cho et al (2013) SPIN90 phosphorylation modulates spine structure and synaptic function. PLoS One 8 e54276. PMID: 23342115.

Huchzermeyer et al (2013) Oxygen consumption rates during three different neuronal activity states in the hippocampal CA3 network. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 33 263. PMID: 23168532.

Hur and Park (2013) Long-term potentiation of excitatory synaptic strength in spinothalamic tract neurons of the rat spinal cord. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 17 553. PMID: 24381506.

Lee et al (2013) A disinhibitory circuit mediates motor integration in the somatosensory cortex. Nat Neurosci 16 1662. PMID: 24097044.

Montarolo et al (2013) Early enriched environment exposure protects spatial memory and accelerates amyloid plaque formation in APP(Swe)/PS1(L166P) mice. PLoS One 8 e69381. PMID: 23894463.

Neuser et al (2013) Region-specific integration of embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal precursors into a pre-existing neuronal circuit. PLoS One 8 e66497. PMID: 23840491.

Oe et al (2013) Dendritic spine dynamics in synaptogenesis after repeated LTP inductions: dependence on pre-existing spine density. Sci Rep 3 1957. PMID: 23739837.

Santini et al (2013) Exaggerated translation causes synaptic and behavioural aberrations associated with autism. Nature 493 411. PMID: 23263185.

Sun et al (2013) Cell type-specific dependency on the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway for the endogenous Epo and VEGF induction by baicalein in neurons versus astrocytes. PLoS One 8 e69019. PMID: 23904909.

Thayer et al (2013) Increased neuronal activity fragments the Golgi complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110 1482. PMID: 23297202.

Tyagarajan et al (2013) Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and glycogen synthase kinase 3β regulate gephyrin postsynaptic aggregation and GABAergic synaptic function in a calpain-dependent mechanism. J Biol Chem 288 9634. PMID: 23408424.

Velmans et al (2013) Plasticity-related gene 3 promotes neurite shaft protrusion. BMC Neurosci 14 36. PMID: 23506325.

Woo et al (2013) The adhesion protein IgSF9b is coupled to neuroligin 2 via S-SCAM to promote inhibitory synapse development. J Cell Biol 201 929. PMID: 23751499.

Zemoura et al (2013) Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation controls cell surface expression of γ-aminobutyric acid, type B receptors. J Biol Chem 288 34897. PMID: 24114844.

Fortin et al (2012) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor activation of CaM-kinase kinase via transient receptor potential canonical channels induces the translation and synaptic incorporation of GluA1-containing calcium-permeable AMPA receptors. J Neurosci 32 8127. PMID: 22699894.

Gaamouch et al (2012) Interaction between αCaMKII and GluN2B controls ERK-dependent plasticity. J Neurosci 32 10767. PMID: 22855824.

Leão et al (2012) OLM interneurons differentially modulate CA3 and entorhinal inputs to hippocampal CA1 neurons. Nat Neurosci 15 1524. PMID: 23042082.

Mesfin et al (2012) In vitro stretch injury induces time- and severity-dependent alterations of STEP phosphorylation and proteolysis in neurons. J Neurotrauma 29 1982. PMID: 22435660.

Mitra et al (2012) Heterogeneous reallocation of presynaptic efficacy in recurrent excitatory circuits adapting to inactivity. Nat Neurosci 15 250. PMID: 22179109.

Ross et al (2012) Opioid-induced hypernociception is associated with hyperexcitability and altered tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ channel function of dorsal root ganglia. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 302 C1152. PMID: 22189556.

Saszik and DeVries (2012) A mammalian retinal bipolar cell uses both graded changes in membrane voltage and all-or-nothing Na+ spikes to encode light. J Neurosci 32 297. PMID: 22219291.

Shulga et al (2012) The loop diuretic bumetanide blocks posttraumatic p75NTR upregulation and rescues injured neurons. J Neurosci 32 1757. PMID: 22302815.

Tan et al (2012) Increasing levels of wild-type CREB up-regulates several activity-regulated inhibitor of death (AID) genes and promotes neuronal survival. BMC Neurosci 13 48. PMID: 22607375.

You et al (2012) Aβ neurotoxicity depends on interactions between copper ions, prion protein, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109 1737. PMID: 22307640.

Bright et al (2011) Profound desensitization by ambient GABA limits activation of δ-containing GABAA receptors during spillover. J Neurosci 31 753. PMID: 21228184.

Etherton et al (2011) An autism-associated point mutation in the neuroligin cytoplasmic tail selectively impairs AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in hippocampus. EMBO J 30 2908. PMID: 21642956.

Krook-Magnuson et al (2011) Ivy and neurogliaform interneurons are a major target of μ-opioid receptor modulation. J Neurosci 31 14861. PMID: 22016519.

Luoma et al (2011) Progesterone inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels is a potential neuroprotective mechanism against excitotoxicity. Steroids 76 845. PMID: 21371490.

Meitzen et al (2011) β1-Adrenergic receptors activate two distinct signaling pathways in striatal neurons. J Neurochem 116 984. PMID: 21143600.

Niesmann et al (2011) Dendritic spine formation and synaptic function require neurobeachin. Nat Commun 2 557. PMID: 22109531.

Parker et al (2011) Attenuating GABA(A) receptor signaling in dopamine neurons selectively enhances reward learning and alters risk preference in mice. J Neurosci 31 17103. PMID: 22114279.

Sinning et al (2011) Synaptic glutamate release is modulated by the Na+ -driven Cl-/HCO3- exchanger Slc4a8. J Neurosci 31 7300. PMID: 21593314.

Wang et al (2011) A critical role for GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in cortical development and function. Neuron 72 789. PMID: 22153375.

Zhu et al (2011) Suppression of PKR promotes network excitability and enhanced cognition by interferon-γ-mediated disinhibition. Cell 147 1384. PMID: 22153080.

Zschenderlein et al (2011) Capsaicin-induced changes in LTP in the lateral amygdala are mediated by TRPV1. PLoS One 6 e16116. PMID: 21249195.

Fu and Pol (2010) Kisspeptin directly excites anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin neurons but inhibits orexigenic neuropeptide Y cells by an indirect synaptic mechanism. J Neurosci 30 10205. PMID: 20668204.

Gómez-Gonzalo et al (2010) An excitatory loop with astrocytes contributes to drive neurons to seizure threshold. PLoS Biol 8 e1000352. PMID: 20405049.

Higley and Sabatini (2010) Competitive regulation of synaptic Ca2+ influx by D2 dopamine and A2A adenosine receptors. Nat Neurosci 13 958. PMID: 20601948.

Kaneko et al (2010) Constitutively active H-ras accelerates multiple forms of plasticity in developing visual cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107 19026. PMID: 20937865.

Kim and Alger (2010) Reduction in endocannabinoid tone is a homeostatic mechanism for specific inhibitory synapses. Nat Neurosci 13 592. PMID: 20348918.

Lin et al (2010) Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) induces actin assembly in dendritic spines to promote their development and potentiate synaptic strength. J Biol Chem 285 36010. PMID: 20826790.

Lorier et al (2010) Opiate-induced suppression of rat hypoglossal motoneuron activity and its reversal by ampakine therapy. PLoS One 5 e8766. PMID: 20098731.

Xu et al (2010) High precision and fast functional mapping of cortical circuitry through a novel combination of voltage sensitive dye imaging and laser scanning photostimulation. J Neurophysiol 103 2301. PMID: 20130040.

Francesconi et al (2009) Regulation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptor trafficking and signaling by the caveolar/lipid raft pathway. J Neurosci 29 3590. PMID: 19295163.

Li et al (2009) Activity-dependent modulation of glutamatergic signaling in the developing rat dorsal horn by early tissue injury. J Neurophysiol 102 2208. PMID: 19675290.

Menuz et al (2009) Critical role for TARPs in early development despite broad functional redundancy. Neuropharmacology 56 22. PMID: 18634809.

Adamcio et al (2008) Erythropoietin enhances hippocampal long-term potentiation and memory. BMC Biol 6 37. PMID: 18782446.

Costa et al (2008) Electrophysiology and pharmacology of striatal neuronal dysfunction induced by mitochondrial complex I inhibition. J Neurosci 28 8040. PMID: 18685029.

Kim and Tsien (2008) Synapse-specific adaptations to inactivity in hippocampal circuits achieve homeostatic gain control while dampening network reverberation. Neuron 58 925. PMID: 18579082.

Léveillé et al (2008) Neuronal viability is controlled by a functional relation between synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors. FASEB J 22 4258. PMID: 18711223.

Peden et al (2008) Developmental maturation of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors in mouse thalamic ventrobasal neurones. J Physiol 586 965. PMID: 18063661.

Baldelli et al (2007) Lack of synapsin I reduces the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles at central inhibitory synapses. J Neurosci 27 13520. PMID: 18057210.

Milenković et al (2007) Development of chloride-mediated inhibition in neurons of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). J Neurophysiol 98 1634. PMID: 17596413.

Nakamoto et al (2007) Fragile X mental retardation protein deficiency leads to excessive mGluR5-dependent internalization of AMPA receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104 15537. PMID: 17881561.

Woo et al (2007) Neuregulin-1 enhances depolarization-induced GABA release. Neuron 54 599. PMID: 17521572.

König et al (2005) TGF-{beta}1 activates two distinct type I receptors in neurons: implications for neuronal NF-{kappa}B signaling. J Cell Biol 168 1077. PMID: 15781474.

Cottrell et al (2004) CPG2: a brain- and synapse-specific protein that regulates the endocytosis of glutamate receptors. Neuron 44 677. PMID: 15541315.

Nakatsuka et al (2003) Distinct roles of P2X receptors in modulating glutamate release at different primary sensory synapses in rat spinal cord. J Neurophysiol 89 3243. PMID: 12783958.

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