Tetrodotoxin

Cat. No. 1078

Tetrodotoxin C11H17N3O8 [4368-28-9]

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Alternative Name: TTx

Chemical Name: Octahydro-12-(hydroxymethyl)-2-imino-5,9:7,10a-dimethano-10aH-[1,3]dioxocino[6,5-d]pyrimidine-4,7,10,11,12-pentol

Biological Activity

Selective inhibitor of Na+ channel conductance. Binding is reversible and of high affinity (Kd = 1-10 nM). Blocks in a use-dependent manner.

Technical Data

M.Wt:
319.27
Formula:
C11H17N3O8
Solubility:
Soluble to 3 mM in acidic buffer (pH 4.8)
Storage:
Desiccate at -20°C
CAS No:
4368-28-9

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet / Safety Data Sheet

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
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Kao (1972) Pharmacology of tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin. Fed.Proc. 31 1117. PMID: 5032475.

Merck Index 12 9382.

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Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Tetrodotoxin include:

Borgs et al (2016) Dopaminergic neurons differentiating from LRRK2 G2019S induced pluripotent stem cells show early neuritic branching defects Scientific Reports 6 33377. PMID: 27640816.

Miyamoto et al (2016) Increasing the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase EphB2 Prevents Amyloid-β-induced Depletion of Cell Surface Glutamate Receptors by a Mechanism That Requires the PDZ-binding Motif of EphB2 and Neuronal Activity. PLoS Pathog 291 1719. PMID: 26589795.

Prigge et al (2016) M1 ipRGCs Influence Visual Function through Retrograde Signaling in the Retina The Journal of Neuroscience 6 7184. PMID: 27383593.

Asano et al (2015) Optogenetic induction of contractile ability in immature C2C12 myotubes. Curr Mol Med 5 8317. PMID: 25661648.

Astorga et al (2015) An excitatory GABA loop operating in vivo. Front Cell Neurosci 9 275. PMID: 26236197.

Bernard and Zhang (2015) MARK/Par1 Kinase Is Activated Downstream of NMDA Receptors through a PKA-Dependent Mechanism. Eur J Neurosci 10 e0124816. PMID: 25932647.

Born et al (2015) Genetic targeting of NRXN2 in mice unveils role in excitatory cortical synapse function and social behaviors. Mol Brain 7 3. PMID: 25745399.

Bryant et al (2015) Cholinergic control of γ power in the midbrain spatial attention network. Mol Brain 35 761. PMID: 25589769.

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Cao et al (2015) Involvement of JNK and caspase activation in hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity in neocortical neurons. Mar Drugs 13 903. PMID: 25675001.

Chen et al (2015) Inhibitory effects of endomorphin-2 on excitatory synaptic transmission and the neuronal excitability of sacral parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in young rats. J Neurosci 9 206. PMID: 26074773.

Cramer et al (2015) Abnormal excitability and episodic low-frequency oscillations in the cerebral cortex of the tottering mouse. Mol Cell Biol 35 5664. PMID: 25855180.

Cuthbert et al (2015) Neural control of submucosal gland and apical membrane secretions in airways. Oncotarget 3. PMID: 26059031.

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Elgueta et al (2015) Acetylcholine induces GABA release onto rod bipolar cells through heteromeric nicotinic receptors expressed in A17 amacrine cells. Physiol Rep 9 6. PMID: 25709566.

Erlandson et al (2015) The Functional Organization of Neocortical Networks Investigated in Slices with Local Field Recordings and Laser Scanning Photostimulation. J Neurosci 10 e0132008. PMID: 26134668.

Eyo et al (2015) Modulation of microglial process convergence toward neuronal dendrites by extracellular calcium. J Neurosci 35 2417. PMID: 25673836.

Ganley et al (2015) Inhibitory Interneurons That Express GFP in the PrP-GFP Mouse Spinal Cord Are Morphologically Heterogeneous, Innervated by Several Classes of Primary Afferent and Include Lamina I Projection Neurons among Their Postsynaptic Targets. Front Synaptic Neurosci 35 7626. PMID: 25972186.

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Ghosh et al (2015) Norepinephrine Modulates Pyramidal Cell Synaptic Properties in the Anterior Piriform Cortex of Mice: Age-Dependent Effects of β-adrenoceptors. Cell Rep 9 450. PMID: 26635530.

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Hooks et al (2015) Dual-channel circuit mapping reveals sensorimotor convergence in the primary motor cortex. Front Cell Neurosci 35 4418. PMID: 25762684.

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Nguyen et al (2015) Biological Activities of Tetrodotoxin-Producing Enterococcus faecium AD1 Isolated from Puffer Fishes. Front Cell Neurosci 2015 973235. PMID: 26380310.

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Scharinger et al (2015) Cell-type-specific tuning of Cav1.3 Ca(2+)-channels by a C-terminal automodulatory domain. J Cell Biol 9 309. PMID: 26379493.

Sivakumaran et al (2015) Selective inhibition of KCC2 leads to hyperexcitability and epileptiform discharges in hippocampal slices and in vivo. Nat Commun 35 8291. PMID: 26019342.

Sobieski et al (2015) Loss of Local Astrocyte Support Disrupts Action Potential Propagation and Glutamate Release Synchrony from Unmyelinated Hippocampal Axon Terminals In Vitro. J Neurosci 35 11105. PMID: 26245971.

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An et al (2014) Neuritin can normalize neural deficits of Alzheimer's disease. Cell Death Dis 5 e1523. PMID: 25393479.

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Khor et al (2014) Investigating diet as the source of tetrodotoxin in Pleurobranchaea maculata. Mar Drugs 12 1. PMID: 24368566.

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Cho et al (2013) Injury-induced HDAC5 nuclear export is essential for axon regeneration. J Neurosci 155 894. PMID: 24209626.

Gao and Derbenev (2013) Synaptic and extrasynaptic transmission of kidney-related neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110 2637. PMID: 24027107.

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Lin et al (2011) AKAP79/150 impacts intrinsic excitability of hippocampal neurons through phospho-regulation of A-type K+ channel trafficking. Oxid Med Cell Longev 31 1323. PMID: 21273417.

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Kim et al (2010) Non-cardiomyocytes influence the electrophysiological maturation of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes during differentiation. J Neurosci 19 783. PMID: 20001453.

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