Tetrodotoxin citrate

Cat. No. 1069

Tetrodotoxin citrate C11H17N3O8 [18660-81-6]

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Alternative Name: TTx citrate

Chemical Name: Octahydro-12-(hydroxymethyl)-2-imino-5,9:7,10a-dimethano-10aH-[1,3]dioxocino[6,5-d]pyrimidine-4,7,10,11,12-pentol citrate

Biological Activity

Highly selective, reversible sodium channel blocker; citrate salt of tetrodotoxin.

Technical Data

M.Wt:
319.27
Formula:
C11H17N3O8
Solubility:
Soluble to 100 mM in water
Storage:
Desiccate at -20°C
CAS No:
18660-81-6

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet / Safety Data Sheet

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
Select another batch:

Gleitz et al (1996) The protective action of tetrodotoxin and (±)-kavain on anaerobic glycolysis, ATP content and intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ of anoxic brain vesicles. Neuropharmacology 35 1743. PMID: 9076753.

Kao (1986) Structure-activity relations of tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin, and analogues. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 479 52. PMID: 2434008.

Kao (1972) Pharmacology of tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin. Fed.Proc. 31 1117. PMID: 5032475.

Merck Index 12 9382.

If you know of a relevant reference for this product please let us know.

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Tetrodotoxin citrate include:

Thomsen et al (2016) Fixed single-cell transcriptomic characterization of human radial glial diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 13 87. PMID: 26524239.

Angelantonio et al (2015) Basal adenosine modulates the functional properties of AMPA receptors in mouse hippocampal neurons through the activation of A1R A2AR and A3R. PLoS One 9 409. PMID: 26528137.

Brown and Wonnacott (2015) Sazetidine-A Activates and Desensitizes Native α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. Gastroenterology 40 2047. PMID: 24728867.

Cichon and Gan (2015) Branch-specific dendritic Ca(2+) spikes cause persistent synaptic plasticity. Nature 520 180. PMID: 25822789.

Dieck et al (2015) Direct visualization of newly synthesized target proteins in situ. Nat Methods 12 411. PMID: 25775042.

Jonas et al (2015) Assessment of TTX-s and TTX-r Action Potential Conduction along Neurites of NGF and GDNF Cultured Porcine DRG Somata. Neurochem Res 10 e0139107. PMID: 26407014.

Liu et al (2015) Muscarinic receptors modulate dendrodendritic inhibitory synapses to sculpt glomerular output. J Neurophysiol 35 5680. PMID: 25855181.

Ouwenga and Dougherty (2015) Fmrp targets or not: long, highly brain-expressed genes tend to be implicated in autism and brain disorders. Mol Autism 6 16. PMID: 25789151.

Slowik and Henderson (2015) Benchmarking the stability of human detergent-solubilised voltage-gated sodium channels for structural studies using eel as a reference. J Neurosci 1848 1545. PMID: 25838126.

Tseng et al (2015) Giant ankyrin-G stabilizes somatodendritic GABAergic synapses through opposing endocytosis of GABAA receptors. Front Cell Neurosci 112 1214. PMID: 25552561.

Halff et al (2014) A novel mechanism for nicotinic potentiation of glutamatergic synapses. J Neurosci 34 2051. PMID: 24501347.

Bloodgood et al (2013) The activity-dependent transcription factor NPAS4 regulates domain-specific inhibition. Nature 503 121. PMID: 24201284.

Evans et al (2013) Dynamic interactions mediated by nonredundant signaling mechanisms couple circadian clock neurons. Neuron 80 973. PMID: 24267653.

Mameza et al (2013) SHANK3 gene mutations associated with autism facilitate ligand binding to the Shank3 ankyrin repeat region. Biochim Biophys Acta 288 26697. PMID: 23897824.

Montgomery et al (2013) Mis-expression of the BK K(+) channel disrupts suprachiasmatic nucleus circuit rhythmicity and alters clock-controlled behavior. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 304 C299. PMID: 23174562.

Ren et al (2013) Direct retino-raphe projection alters serotonergic tone and affective behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology 38 1163. PMID: 23370156.

Reutsky-Gefen et al (2013) Holographic optogenetic stimulation of patterned neuronal activity for vision restoration. Nat Methods 4 1509. PMID: 23443537.

Austgen et al (2012) 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptors tonically augment synaptic currents in the nucleus tractus solitarii. PLoS One 108 2292. PMID: 22855775.

Dagostin et al (2012) Increased bursting glutamatergic neurotransmission in an auditory forebrain area of the zebra finch (Taenopygia guttata) induced by auditory stimulation. J Biol Chem 198 705. PMID: 22752655.

Janssen et al (2012) Neuregulin directly decreases voltage-gated sodium current in hippocampal ErbB4-expressing interneurons. J Neurosci 32 13889. PMID: 23035098.

Jurgens et al (2012) Optogenetic stimulation of the corticothalamic pathway affects relay cells and GABAergic neurons differently in the mouse visual thalamus. PLoS One 7 e45717. PMID: 23029198.

Tozzi et al (2012) A2A adenosine receptor antagonism enhances synaptic and motor effects of cocaine via CB1 cannabinoid receptor activation. PLoS One 7 e38312. PMID: 22715379.

Watmuff et al (2012) In vitro maturation of dopaminergic neurons derived from mouse embryonic stem cells: implications for transplantation. J Neurosci 7 e31999. PMID: 22384125.

Austgen et al (2011) Hydrogen sulfide augments synaptic neurotransmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract. Mol Brain 106 1822. PMID: 21734104.

Calloe et al (2011) Multiple arrhythmic syndromes in a newborn, owing to a novel mutation in SCN5A. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 89 723. PMID: 21895525.

Specht et al (2011) Regulation of glycine receptor diffusion properties and gephyrin interactions by protein kinase C. EMBO J 30 3842. PMID: 21829170.

Stacpoole et al (2011) Efficient derivation of NPCs, spinal motor neurons and midbrain dopaminergic neurons from hESCs at 3% oxygen. Nat Protoc 6 1229. PMID: 21799491.

Vornanen et al (2011) Tetrodotoxin sensitivity of the vertebrate cardiac Na+ current. Mar Drugs 9 2409. PMID: 22163193.

Zemkova et al (2011) Norepinephrine causes a biphasic change in mammalian pinealocye membrane potential: role of alpha1B-adrenoreceptors, phospholipase C, and Ca2+. Endocrinology 152 3842. PMID: 21828176.

Han et al (2007) Dopaminergic modulation of spinal neuronal excitability. J Neurophysiol 27 13192. PMID: 18045913.

Kato et al (2007) New transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein isoform, γ-7, differentially regulates AMPA receptors. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Phys 27 4969. PMID: 17475805.

Lee and Tepper (2007) A calcium-activated nonselective cation conductance underlies the plateau potential in rat substantia nigra GABAergic neurons. J Neurosci 27 6531. PMID: 17567814.

Khan et al (2006) Pharmacological characterization of endothelin receptors-mediated contraction in the mouse isolated proximal and distal colon. Br J Pharmacol 147 607. PMID: 16432510.

Schicho et al (2006) Hydrogen sulfide is a novel prosecretory neuromodulator in the Guinea-pig and human colon. J Neurosci 131 1542. PMID: 17101327.

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