Cat. No. 0222
Chemical Name: (2S,3S,4S)-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethen
Biological ActivitySelective agonist at kainate receptors. Potent excitant and neurotoxin. Also available as part of the Kainate Receptor Tocriset™.
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet / Safety Datasheet
References are publications that support the products' biological activity.
Watkins and Evans (1981) Excitatory amino acid transmitters. Annu.Rev.Pharmacol.Toxicol. 21 165. PMID: 6112965.
Watkins (1978) Excitatory amino acids. Kainic acid as a Tool in Neurobiology. Edited by E 37.
If you know of a relevant reference for Kainic acid please let us know.
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Kainic acid include:
Ferando and Mody (2015) In vitro gamma oscillations following partial and complete ablation of δ subunit-containing GABAA receptors from parvalbumin interneurons. Neuropharmacology 88 91. PMID: 25261782.
Parrish et al (2015) Methionine increases BDNF DNA methylation and improves memory in epilepsy. Neurobiol Dis 2 401. PMID: 25909085.
Spampinato et al (2015) Glial metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 increases maturation and survival of oligodendrocytes. Neurotox Res 8 462. PMID: 25642169.
Szokol et al (2015) Augmentation of Ca(2+) signaling in astrocytic endfeet in the latent phase of temporal lobe epilepsy. J Biol Chem 9 49. PMID: 25762896.
Xiao et al (2015) CX3 chemokine receptor 1 deficiency leads to reduced dendritic complexity and delayed maturation of newborn neurons in the adult mouse hippocampus. Front Cell Neurosci 10 772. PMID: 26109952.
Chang et al (2014) Seizure-induced reduction in PIP3 levels contributes to seizure-activity and is rescued by valproic acid. Neurobiol Dis 62 296. PMID: 24148856.
Domin et al (2014) Group III mGlu receptor agonist, ACPT-I, exerts potential neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. Ann Clin Transl Neurol 26 99. PMID: 24402869.
Bernard et al (2013) Phosphorylation of FMRP and alterations of FMRP complex underlie enhanced mLTD in adult rats triggered by early life seizures. Nat Commun 59 42736. PMID: 23831253.
deCarvalho et al (2013) Aversive cues fail to activate fos expression in the asymmetric olfactory-habenula pathway of zebrafish. Front Neural Circuits 7 98. PMID: 23734103.
Ferando and Mody (2013) Altered gamma oscillations during pregnancy through loss of δ subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors on parvalbumin interneurons. Front Neural Circuits 7 144. PMID: 24062647.
Hou and Yu (2013) Activity-regulated somatostatin expression reduces dendritic spine density and lowers excitatory synaptic transmission via postsynaptic somatostatin receptor 4. Neural Regen Res 288 2501. PMID: 23233668.
Krook-Magnuson et al (2013) On-demand optogenetic control of spontaneous seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurosci 4 1376. PMID: 23340416.
Neves et al (2013) The LIM homeodomain protein Lhx6 regulates maturation of interneurons and network excitability in the mammalian cortex. Cereb Cortex 23 1811. PMID: 22710612.
Horita et al (2012) Specialized motor-driven dusp1 expression in the song systems of multiple lineages of vocal learning birds. PLoS One 7 e42173. PMID: 22876306.
Huang et al (2012) Glutamate may be an efferent transmitter that elicits inhibition in mouse taste buds. PLoS One 7 e30662. PMID: 22292013.
Marrocco et al (2012) Anxiety-like behavior of prenatally stressed rats is associated with a selective reduction of glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 32 17143. PMID: 23197707.
Rodriguez-Diaz et al (2012) Real-time detection of acetylcholine release from the human endocrine pancreas. Nat Protoc 7 1015. PMID: 22555241.
Doyon et al (2011) Efficacy of synaptic inhibition depends on multiple, dynamically interacting mechanisms implicated in chloride homeostasis. J Neurosci 7 e1002149. PMID: 21931544.
Wang and Green (2011) Functional role of neurotrophin-3 in synapse regeneration by spiral ganglion neurons on inner hair cells after excitotoxic trauma in vitro. J Neurosci 31 7938. PMID: 21613508.
Hitt et al (2010) BACE1-/- mice exhibit seizure activity that does not correlate with sodium channel level or axonal localization. Mol Neurodegener 5 31. PMID: 20731874.
Peng et al (2010) Postsynaptic spiking homeostatically induces cell-autonomous regulation of inhibitory inputs via retrograde signaling. J Neurosci 30 16220. PMID: 21123568.
Fritsch et al (2009) Pathological alterations in GABAergic interneurons and reduced tonic inhibition in the basolateral amygdala during epileptogenesis. Neuroscience 163 415. PMID: 19540312.
Shin et al (2008) Mislocalization of h channel subunits underlies h channelopathy in temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurobiol Dis 32 26. PMID: 18657617.
Milstein et al (2007) TARP subtypes differentially and dose-dependently control synaptic AMPA receptor gating. Neuron 55 905. PMID: 17880894.
Elliott-Hunt et al (2004) Galanin acts as a neuroprotective factor to the hippocampus. PLoS Comput Biol 101 5105. PMID: 15041741.
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Keywords: Kainic acid, supplier, Potent, excitant, neurotoxin, Glutamate, Kainate, Receptors, iGluR, Ionotropic, Tocris Bioscience, Kainate Receptor Agonist products