Cat. No. 0223
Chemical Name: 4-Hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid
Biological ActivityBroad spectrum EAA antagonist. Putative GPR35 ligand. Kynurenic acid sodium salt also available (Cat. No. 3694).
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet / Safety Datasheet
References are publications that support the products' biological activity.
Wang et al (2006) Kynurenic acid as a ligand for orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR35. J.Biol.Chem. 281 22021. PMID: 16754668.
Pittaluga et al (1997) The 'kynurenate test,' a biochemical assay for putative cognition enhancers. J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 283 82. PMID: 9336311.
Stone and Burton (1988) NMDA receptors and ligands in the vertebrate CNS. Prog.Neurobiol. 30 333. PMID: 2830636.
Perkins and Stone (1982) An iontophoretic investigation of the actions of convulsant kynurenines and their interaction with the endogenous excitant quinolinic acid. Brain Res. 247 184. PMID: 6215086.
If you know of a relevant reference for Kynurenic acid please let us know.
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Kynurenic acid include:
Patel et al (2016) Context-Dependent Modulation of GABAAR-Mediated Tonic Currents. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 36 607. PMID: 26758848.
Carver et al (2014) Perimenstrual-like hormonal regulation of extrasynaptic δ-containing GABAA receptors mediating tonic inhibition and neurosteroid sensitivity. J Neurosci 34 14181. PMID: 25339733.
Weston et al (2014) Loss of mTOR repressors Tsc1 or Pten has divergent effects on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in single hippocampal neuron cultures. Front Mol Neurosci 7 1. PMID: 24574959.
Chen et al (2013) The Munc13 proteins differentially regulate readily releasable pool dynamics and calcium-dependent recovery at a central synapse. Neuron 33 8336. PMID: 23658173.
Wu et al (2013) Estrous cycle regulation of extrasynaptic δ-containing GABA(A) receptor-mediated tonic inhibition and limbic epileptogenesis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 346 146. PMID: 23667248.
Jones et al (2011) Deletion of Dlx1 results in reduced glutamatergic input to hippocampal interneurons. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 105 1984. PMID: 21325686.
Shinoda et al (2011) Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) promotes BDNF secretion and is critical for the development of GABAergic interneuron network. Eur J Neurosci 108 373. PMID: 21173225.
Zhu et al (2011) Suppression of PKR promotes network excitability and enhanced cognition by interferon-γ-mediated disinhibition. Cell 147 1384. PMID: 22153080.
Young and Neher (2009) Synaptotagmin has an essential function in synaptic vesicle positioning for synchronous release in addition to its role as a calcium sensor. J Neurosci 63 482. PMID: 19709630.
Perez-Leon et al (2006) Synaptic inputs to retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock. J Neurophysiol 24 1117. PMID: 16930437.
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Keywords: Kynurenic acid, supplier, Broad, spectrum, EAA, antagonists, Glutamate, Ionotropic, Non-Selective, iGluR, Receptors, mGlur, Metabotropic, Tocris Bioscience, Non-selective Ionotropic Glutamate Antagonist products