Y-27632 dihydrochloride

Cat. No. 1254

Y-27632 dihydrochloride C14H21N3O.2HCl [129830-38-2]

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Chemical Name: trans-4-[(1R)-1-Aminoethyl]-N-4-pyridinylcyclohexanecarboxamide dihydrochloride

Biological Activity

Selective p160ROCK inhibitor (Ki values are 0.14, 26, 25 and > 250 μM for p160ROCK, PKC, PKA and MLCK respectively). Also inhibits PRK2 (IC50 = 600 nM). Smooth muscle relaxant and orally active in vivo. Increases survival rate of human embryonic stem (hES) cells and iPSC-BMECs undergoing cryopreservation. Also optimizes naïve human pluripotent stem cell growth and viability following naïve cell derivation from primed ESCs and iPSCs using naïve human stem cell medium (NHSM).

Technical Data

Soluble to 100 mM in water
>98 %
Desiccate at RT

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet / Safety Datasheet

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References are publications that support the products' biological activity.

Wilson et al (2016) Cryopreservation of brain endothelial cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells is enhanced by Rho-associated coiled coil-containing kinase inhibition. Tissue.Eng.Part C.Methods 22 1085. PMID: 27846787.

Gafni et al (2013) Derivation of novel human ground state naive pluripotent stem cells. Nature 504 282. PMID: 24172903.

Ichikawa et al (2011) Freeze-thawing single human embryonic stem cells induce e-cadherin and actin filament network disruption via g13 signaling. Cryo Letters. 32 516. PMID: 22227712.

Narumiya et al (2000) Use and properties of ROCK-specific inhibitor Y-27632. Methods Enzymol. 325 273. PMID: 11036610.

Uehata et al (1997) Calcium sensitization of smooth muscle mediated by a Rho-associated protein kinase. Nature 389 990. PMID: 9353125.

If you know of a relevant reference for Y-27632 dihydrochloride please let us know.

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Y-27632 dihydrochloride include:

Benedicto (2017) Concerted regulation of retinal pigment epithelium basement membrane and barrier function by angiocrine factors. Nat Commun 8 15374. PMID: 28524846.

Balcioglu et al (2016) Tumor-induced remote ECM network orientation steers angiogenesis. Development 6 22580. PMID: 26931404.

Borgs et al (2016) Dopaminergic neurons differentiating from LRRK2 G2019S induced pluripotent stem cells show early neuritic branching defects. Scientific Reports 6 33377. PMID: 27640816.

Chal et al (2016) Generation of human muscle fibers and satellite-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells in vitro. Nat.Protoc. 11 1833. PMID: 27583644.

Foulke-Abel et al (2016) Human Enteroids as a Model of Upper Small Intestinal Ion Transport Physiology and Pathophysiology. Nat Commun 150 638. PMID: 26677983.

Guye et al (2016) Genetically engineering self-organization of human pluripotent stem cells into a liver bud-like tissue using Gata6. Sci Rep 7 10243. PMID: 26732624.

Jardé et al (2016) Wnt and Neuregulin1/ErbB signalling extends 3D culture of hormone responsive mammary organoids Nature Communications 7 13207. PMID: 27782124.

Kellner et al (2016) Nogo-A controls structural plasticity at dendritic spines by rapidly modulating actin dynamics. Hippocampus 6 816. PMID: 26748478.

Mou et al (2016) Dual SMAD Signaling Inhibition Enables Long-Term Expansion of Diverse Epithelial Basal Cells Cell: Stem Cell 19 217. PMID: 27320041.

Palpant et al (2016) Generating high-purity cardiac and endothelial derivatives from patterned mesoderm using humanpluripotent stem cells. Nature Protocols 12 15. PMID: 27906170.

Abraham et al (2015) A Rac/Cdc42 exchange factor complex promotes formation of lateral filopodia and blood vessel lumen morphogenesis. Stem Cell Reports 6 7286. PMID: 26129894.

Arbab et al (2015) Cloning-free CRISPR. Cell 5 908. PMID: 26527385.

Balcioglu et al (2015) The integrin expression profile modulates orientation and dynamics of force transmission at cell-matrix adhesions. Nat Biotechnol 128 1316. PMID: 25663698.

Chaudhuri et al (2015) Substrate stress relaxation regulates cell spreading. Brain 6 6364. PMID: 25695512.

Chen et al (2015) Variations in Glycogen Synthesis in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells with Altered Pluripotent States. PLoS One 10 e0142554. PMID: 26565809.

Choi et al (2015) SDF-1α stiffens myeloma bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells through the activation of RhoA-ROCK-Myosin II. Stem Cell Reports 136 E219. PMID: 25137150.

Davies et al (2015) The Viral Mimetic Polyinosinic:Polycytidylic Acid Alters the Growth Characteristics of Small Intestinal and Colonic Crypt Cultures. PLoS One 10 e0138531. PMID: 26414184.

Edri et al (2015) Analysing human neural stem cell ontogeny by consecutive isolation of Notch active neural progenitors. Nat Commun 6 6500. PMID: 25799239.

Fernandes et al (2015) Comparison of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes, Cardiovascular Progenitors, and Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells for Cardiac Repair. Bone Res NULL. PMID: 26607951.

Gjorevski et al (2015) Dynamic tensile forces drive collective cell migration through three-dimensional extracellular matrices. Sci Rep 5 11458. PMID: 26165921.

Härmä et al (2015) Optimization of Invasion-Specific Effects of Betulin Derivatives on Prostate Cancer Cells through Lead Development. Stem Cell Reports 10 e0126111. PMID: 25965345.

Höfner et al (2015) Defined conditions for the isolation and expansion of basal prostate progenitor cells of mouse and human origin. PLoS One 4 503. PMID: 25702639.

Iovino et al (2015) Early maturation and distinct tau pathology in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from patients with MAPT mutations. Development 138 3345. PMID: 26220942.

Jönsson et al (2015) Comprehensive analysis of microRNA expression in regionalized human neural progenitor cells reveals microRNA-10 as a caudalizing factor. Int J Nanomedicine 142 3166. PMID: 26395143.

Lachmann et al (2015) Large-scale hematopoietic differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells provides granulocytes or macrophages for cell replacement therapies. Nat Commun 4 282. PMID: 25680479.

Lee et al (2015) Odontogenic Ameloblast-associated Protein (ODAM) Mediates Junctional Epithelium Attachment to Teeth via Integrin-ODAM-Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 5 (ARHGEF5)-RhoA Signaling. Toxicol Sci 290 14740. PMID: 25911094.

Lee et al (2015) Machine learning plus optical flow: a simple and sensitive method to detect cardioactive drugs. Sci Rep 5 11817. PMID: 26139150.

Luzzani et al (2015) A therapy-grade protocol for differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into mesenchymal stem cells using platelet lysate as supplement. Int J Cancer 6 6. PMID: 25582222.

Madsen et al (2015) Hypoxia and loss of PHD2 inactivate stromal fibroblasts to decrease tumour stiffness and metastasis. EMBO Rep 16 1394. PMID: 26323721.

Maharam et al (2015) Rho/Rock signal transduction pathway is required for MSC tenogenic differentiation. Stem Cell Res Ther 3 15015. PMID: 26509098.

Morizane et al (2015) Nephron organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells model kidney development and injury. Nat Commun 33 1193. PMID: 26458176.

Pattabiraman et al (2015) RhoA GTPase-induced ocular hypertension in a rodent model is associated with increased fibrogenic activity in the trabecular meshwork. Autophagy 185 496. PMID: 25499974.

Piao et al (2015) Human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors remyelinate the brain and rescue behavioral deficits following radiation. Cell Stem Cell 16 198. PMID: 25658373.

Romero et al (2015) A panel of induced pluripotent stem cells from chimpanzees: a resource for comparative functional genomics. Elife 4 e07103. PMID: 26102527.

Ruprecht et al (2015) Cortical contractility triggers a stochastic switch to fast amoeboid cell motility. Int J Mol Sci 160 673. PMID: 25679761.

Sakaguchi et al (2015) Generation of functional hippocampal neurons from self-organizing human embryonic stem cell-derived dorsomedial telencephalic tissue. Mol Vis 6 8896. PMID: 26573335.

Serra et al (2015) Simvastatin Increases Fibulin-2 Expression in Human Coronary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells via RhoA/Rho-Kinase Signaling Pathway Inhibition. PLoS One 10 e0133875. PMID: 26207907.

Su et al (2015) Phenotypes of trypsin- and collagenase-prepared bovine corneal endothelial cells in the presence of a selective Rho kinase inhibitor, Y-27632. PLoS Comput Biol 21 633. PMID: 26097378.

Tai et al (2015) Simvastatin enhances Rho/actin/cell rigidity pathway contributing to mesenchymal stem cells' osteogenic differentiation. Nat Commun 10 5881. PMID: 26451103.

Tyson et al (2015) Duration of culture and sonic hedgehog signaling differentially specify PV versus SST cortical interneuron fates from embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells 142 1267. PMID: 25804737.

Vergara et al (2015) Transgenic plants as low-cost platform for chemotherapeutic drugs screening. J Biol Chem 16 2174. PMID: 25608652.

Ziv et al (2015) Quantitative Live Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Neural Rosettes Reveals Structure-Function Dynamics Coupled to Cortical Development. Stem Cell Reports 11 e1004453. PMID: 26473351.

Aubdool et al (2014) TRPA1 is essential for the vascular response to environmental cold exposure. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 5 5732. PMID: 25501034.

Huang et al (2014) Efficient generation of lung and airway epithelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells. Nat Biotechnol 32 84. PMID: 24291815.

Kameoka et al (2014) A high-throughput screen for teratogens using human pluripotent stem cells. J Biomol Screen 137 76. PMID: 24154490.

Keimpema et al (2014) GABAergic terminals are a source of galanin to modulate cholinergic neuron development in the neonatal forebrain. Cereb Cortex 24 3277. PMID: 23897649.

Liu and Chen (2014) Cryopreservation of human pluripotent stem cells in defined medium. Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol 31 1C.17.1. PMID: 25366897.

Luo et al (2014) Generation of GFP Reporter Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using AAVS1 Safe Harbor Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nuclease. Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol 29 5A.7.1. PMID: 24838915.

McNary et al (2014) Transforming growth factor β-induced superficial zone protein accumulation in the surface zone of articular cartilage is dependent on the cytoskeleton. Tissue Eng Part A 20 921. PMID: 24116978.

Mich et al (2014) Prospective identification of functionally distinct stem cells and neurosphere-initiating cells in adult mouse forebrain. Elife 3 e02669. PMID: 24843006.

Moon et al (2014) Development of a primary mouse intestinal epithelial cell monolayer culture system to evaluate factors that modulate IgA transcytosis. Mucosal Immunol 7 818. PMID: 24220295.

Orgaz et al (2014) Diverse matrix metalloproteinase functions regulate cancer amoeboid migration. Nat Commun 5 4255. PMID: 24963846.

Pavlov et al (2014) Role of Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor α in control of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-mediated sodium reabsorption. J Biol Chem 289 28651. PMID: 25164814.

Shelton et al (2014) Derivation and expansion of PAX7-positive muscle progenitors from human and mouse embryonic stem cells. Stem Cell Reports 3 516. PMID: 25241748.

Sun et al (2014) Induction of entosis by epithelial cadherin expression. Cell Res 24 1288. PMID: 25342558.

Sun et al (2014) Competition between human cells by entosis. Cell Res 24 1299. PMID: 25342560.

Wile et al (2014) Molecular beacon-enabled purification of living cells by targeting cell type-specific mRNAs. Nat Protoc 9 2411. PMID: 25232937.

Williams et al (2014) An in vivo role for Rho kinase activation in the tumour vascular disrupting activity of combretastatin A-4 3-O-phosphate. Br J Pharmacol 171 4902. PMID: 24930520.

Wrighton et al (2014) Signals from the surface modulate differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells through glycosaminoglycans and integrins. Circ Res 111 18126. PMID: 25422477.

Barthwal et al (2013) Fluid-phase pinocytosis of native low density lipoprotein promotes murine M-CSF differentiated macrophage foam cell formation. PLoS One 8 e58054. PMID: 23536783.

Calvo et al (2013) Mechanotransduction and YAP-dependent matrix remodelling is required for the generation and maintenance of cancer-associated fibroblasts. Nat Cell Biol 15 637. PMID: 23708000.

Crompton et al (2013) Stepwise, non-adherent differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to generate basal forebrain cholinergic neurons via hedgehog signaling. Nat Cell Biol 11 1206. PMID: 24013066.

Hannan et al (2013) Inhibition of Rho-kinase improves erectile function, increases nitric oxide signaling and decreases penile apoptosis in a rat model of cavernous nerve injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 189 1155. PMID: 23021998.

Hutchins et al (2013) Calcium release-dependent actin flow in the leading process mediates axophilic migration. J Cell Biochem 33 11361. PMID: 23843509.

Kirkeby et al (2013) Generating regionalized neuronal cells from pluripotency, a step-by-step protocol. Front Cell Neurosci 6 64. PMID: 23316134.

Krajcovic et al (2013) mTOR regulates phagosome and entotic vacuole fission. Mol Biol Cell 24 3736. PMID: 24088573.

Lazzeroni et al (2013) A phenotypic screening assay for modulators of huntingtin-induced transcriptional dysregulation. Exp Neurol 18 984. PMID: 23562876.

Lin et al (2013) Activation of β 1 but not β 3 integrin increases cell traction forces. J Neurosci 587 763. PMID: 23395612.

Lu et al (2013) Generation of integration-free and region-specific neural progenitors from primate fibroblasts. Curr Biol 3 1580. PMID: 23643533.

Pol et al (2013) Sox10-MCS5 enhancer dynamically tracks human oligodendrocyte progenitor fate. Stem Cell Res 247 694. PMID: 23507034.

Smith et al (2013) Interleukin-6 and oncostatin-M synergize with the PI3K/AKT pathway to promote aggressive prostate malignancy in mouse and human tissues. Mol Cancer Res 11 1159. PMID: 23867565.

Zeller et al (2013) The role of mechanical force and ROS in integrin-dependent signals. PLoS One 8 e64897. PMID: 23738008.

Zhu and Nelson (2013) PI3K regulates branch initiation and extension of cultured mammary epithelia via Akt and Rac1 respectively. Cell 379 235. PMID: 23665174.

Beers et al (2012) Passaging and colony expansion of human pluripotent stem cells by enzyme-free dissociation in chemically defined culture conditions. Nat Protoc 7 2029. PMID: 23099485.

Guo et al (2012) Slug and Sox9 cooperatively determine the mammary stem cell state. J Cell Sci 148 1015. PMID: 22385965.

Harel et al (2012) ZFX controls the self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells. PLoS One 7 e42302. PMID: 22879936.

Neely et al (2012) DMH1, a highly selective small molecule BMP inhibitor promotes neurogenesis of hiPSCs: comparison of PAX6 and SOX1 expression during neural induction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 3 482. PMID: 22860217.

Paige et al (2012) A temporal chromatin signature in human embryonic stem cells identifies regulators of cardiac development. Cell 151 221. PMID: 22981225.

Roller et al (2012) Synthetic lethal screening with small-molecule inhibitors provides a pathway to rational combination therapies for melanoma. Mol Cancer Ther 11 2505. PMID: 22962324.

Walker et al (2012) Intra-axonal translation of RhoA promotes axon growth inhibition by CSPG. J Cell Sci 32 14442. PMID: 23055514.

Abreu-Blanco et al (2011) Cell wound repair in Drosophila occurs through three distinct phases of membrane and cytoskeletal remodeling. J Cell Biol 193 455. PMID: 21518790.

Kaur et al (2011) RhoJ/TCL regulates endothelial motility and tube formation and modulates actomyosin contractility and focal adhesion numbers. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 31 657. PMID: 21148427.

Lee et al (2011) The Relaxing Effect of α-Defensin 1 on the Adrenergic Responses of Rat Bladder. Dev Biol 15 143. PMID: 21860592.

Sherwood et al (2011) Wnt signaling specifies and patterns intestinal endoderm. Mech Dev 128 387. PMID: 21854845.

Vallenius et al (2011) An association between NUAK2 and MRIP reveals a novel mechanism for regulation of actin stress fibers. Integr Biol (Camb) 124 384. PMID: 21242312.

Cao et al (2010) Cortical actin dynamics facilitate early-stage centrosome separation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 20 770. PMID: 20409712.

Díez et al (2010) Statins inhibit angiotensin II/Smad pathway and related vascular fibrosis, by a TGF-β-independent process. PLoS One 5 e14145. PMID: 21152444.

Gjorevski and Nelson (2010) Endogenous patterns of mechanical stress are required for branching morphogenesis. Stroke 2 424. PMID: 20717570.

Gomez et al (2010) Tissue geometry patterns epithelial-mesenchymal transition via intercellular mechanotransduction. ACS Chem Neurosci 110 44. PMID: 20336666.

Kim et al (2010) PDGF signaling is required for epicardial function and blood vessel formation in regenerating zebrafish hearts. FEBS Lett 107 17206. PMID: 20858732.

Desai et al (2009) Cell polarity triggered by cell-cell adhesion via E-cadherin. Br J Pharmacol 122 905. PMID: 19258396.

Giampieri et al (2009) Localized and reversible TGFβ signalling switches breast cancer cells from cohesive to single cell motility. Nat Commun 11 1287. PMID: 19838175.

Silva-Santos et al (2009) The Rho-A/Rho-kinase pathway is up-regulated but remains inhibited by cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent mechanisms during endotoxemia in small mesenteric arteries. J Biol Chem 37 1716. PMID: 19325475.

Inan and Büyükafşar (2008) Antiepileptic effects of two Rho-kinase inhibitors, Y-27632 and fasudil, in mice. Am J Pathol 155 44. PMID: 18536751.

Rodríguez-Vita et al (2008) Essential role of TGF-beta/Smad pathway on statin dependent vascular smooth muscle cell regulation. PLoS One 3 e3959. PMID: 19088845.

Ruiz and Chen (2008) Emergence of patterned stem cell differentiation within multicellular structures. J Cell Sci 26 2921. PMID: 18703661.

Bhadriraju et al (2007) Quantifying myosin light chain phosphorylation in single adherent cells with automated fluorescence microscopy. J Biol Chem 8 43. PMID: 17941977.

Schaafsma et al (2007) Insulin induces airway smooth muscle contraction. Cell Rep 150 136. PMID: 17160007.

Guillemot and Citi (2006) Cingulin regulates claudin-2 expression and cell proliferation through the small GTPase RhoA. Mol Biol Cell 17 3569. PMID: 16723500.

Muñoz-García et al (2006) Fn14 is upregulated in cytokine-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells and is expressed in human carotid atherosclerotic plaques: modulation by atorvastatin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 37 2044. PMID: 16809572.

Wyckoff et al (2006) ROCK- and myosin-dependent matrix deformation enables protease-independent tumor-cell invasion in vivo. Curr Biol 16 1515. PMID: 16890527.

Hartmann et al (2005) CXCR4 chemokine receptor and integrin signaling co-operate in mediating adhesion and chemoresistance in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells. Oncogene 24 4462. PMID: 15806155.

Rodríguez-Vita et al (2005) Endothelin-1, via ETA receptor and independently of transforming growth factor-β, increases the connective tissue growth factor in vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 97 125. PMID: 15976312.

Schneider et al (2004) Signal transduction underlying carbachol-induced contraction of human urinary bladder. J Biol Chem 309 1148. PMID: 14769832.

Turner et al (2004) The activity of the plexin-A1 receptor is regulated by Rac. J Biol Chem 279 33199. PMID: 15187088.

Surks et al (2003) Myosin phosphatase-Rho interacting protein. A new member of the myosin phosphatase complex that directly binds RhoA. J Biol Chem 278 51484. PMID: 14506264.

An et al (2002) Stiffness changes in cultured airway smooth muscle cells. Gastroenterology 283 C792. PMID: 12176736.

Hippenstiel et al (2002) Rho protein inactivation induced apoptosis of cultured human endothelial cells. BMC Cell Biol 283 L830. PMID: 12225960.

Huang et al (2002) Differential regulation of cell migration, actin stress fiber organization, and cell transformation by functional domains of Crk-associated substrate. Crit Care Med 277 27265. PMID: 12011056.

Jung et al (2002) Interaction of cofilin with triose-phosphate isomerase contributes glycolytic fuel for Na,K-ATPase via Rho-mediated signaling pathway. Br J Pharmacol 277 48931. PMID: 12359716.

Vinson et al (2001) Myelin-associated glycoprotein interacts with ganglioside GT1b. A mechanism for neurite outgrowth inhibition. J Urol 276 20280. PMID: 11279053.

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