DNQX

Cat. No. 0189

DNQX
 C8H4N4O6 [2379-57-9]

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Chemical Name: 6,7-Dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione

Biological Activity

Selective non-NMDA receptor antagonist. DNQX disodium salt (Cat. No. 2312) also available.

Technical Data

M.Wt:
252.14
Formula:
C8H4N4O6
Solubility:
Soluble to 100 mM in DMSO
Purity:
>98 %
Storage:
Store at RT
CAS No:
2379-57-9

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet / Safety Data Sheet

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
Select another batch:

Watkins et al (1990) Structure-activity relationships in the development of excitatory amino acid receptor agonists and competitive antagonists. TiPS 11 25. PMID: 2155495.

Honore et al (1988) Quinoxalinediones: potent competitive non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists. Science 241 701. PMID: 2899909.

If you know of a relevant reference for this product please let us know.

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for DNQX include:

Thomsen et al (2016) Fixed single-cell transcriptomic characterization of human radial glial diversity. Nat Methods 13 87. PMID: 26524239.

Arama et al (2015) GABAA receptor activity shapes the formation of inhibitory synapses between developing medium spiny neurons. Front Cell Neurosci 9 290. PMID: 26300728.

Bajo et al (2015) IL-1 interacts with ethanol effects on GABAergic transmission in the mouse central amygdala. Front Pharmacol 6 49. PMID: 25852553.

Choe et al (2015) High salt intake increases blood pressure via BDNF-mediated downregulation of KCC2 and impaired baroreflex inhibition of vasopressin neurons. Neuron 85 549. PMID: 25619659.

Cramer et al (2015) Abnormal excitability and episodic low-frequency oscillations in the cerebral cortex of the tottering mouse. J Neurosci 35 5664. PMID: 25855180.

Deidda et al (2015) Early depolarizing GABA controls critical-period plasticity in the rat visual cortex. Nat Neurosci 18 87. PMID: 25485756.

Dorris et al (2015) Intrinsic excitability varies by sex in prepubertal striatal medium spiny neurons. J Neurophysiol 113 720. PMID: 25376786.

Haj-Yasein et al (2015) Deletion of aquaporin-4 increases extracellular K(+) concentration during synaptic stimulation in mouse hippocampus. Brain Struct Funct 220 2469. PMID: 24744149.

Hososhima et al (2015) Kinetic evaluation of photosensitivity in bi-stable variants of chimeric channelrhodopsins. PLoS One 10 e0119558. PMID: 25789474.

Konopacka et al (2015) Osmoregulation requires brain expression of the renal Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC2. J Neurosci 35 5144. PMID: 25834041.

Liu et al (2015) Morphological and physiological evidence of a synaptic connection between the lateral parabrachial nucleus and neurons in the A7 catecholamine cell group in rats. J Biomed Sci 22 79. PMID: 26385355.

Malyshev et al (2015) Advantages and limitations of the use of optogenetic approach in studying fast-scale spike encoding. PLoS One 10 e0122286. PMID: 25850004.

Morrie and Feller (2015) An Asymmetric Increase in Inhibitory Synapse Number Underlies the Development of a Direction Selective Circuit in the Retina. J Neurosci 35 9281. PMID: 26109653.

Reifler et al (2015) The rat retina has five types of ganglion-cell photoreceptors. Exp Eye Res 130 17. PMID: 25450063.

Rosa et al (2015) Neuron-glia signaling in developing retina mediated by neurotransmitter spillover. Elife 4. PMID: 26274565.

Sexton et al (2015) Type I intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells of early post-natal development correspond to the M4 subtype. Neural Dev 10 17. PMID: 26091805.

Vance et al (2015) PAR1-activated astrocytes in the nucleus of the solitary tract stimulate adjacent neurons via NMDA receptors. J Neurosci 35 776. PMID: 25589770.

Albrecht et al (2014) Inhibitory projections from the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body to the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body in the mouse. Front Neural Circuits 8 83. PMID: 25120436.

Armbrust et al (2014) Mutant β-III spectrin causes mGluR1α mislocalization and functional deficits in a mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 5. J Neurosci 34 9891. PMID: 25057192.

Castaño et al (2014) Fast and efficient neural conversion of human hematopoietic cells. Stem Cell Reports 3 1118. PMID: 25458894.

Cijsouw et al (2014) Munc18-1 redistributes in nerve terminals in an activity- and PKC-dependent manner. J Cell Biol 204 759. PMID: 24590174.

Dale et al (2014) Vortioxetine disinhibits pyramidal cell function and enhances synaptic plasticity in the rat hippocampus. J Psychopharmacol 28 891. PMID: 25122043.

Dragicevic et al (2014) Cav1.3 channels control D2-autoreceptor responses via NCS-1 in substantia nigra dopamine neurons. Brain 137 2287. PMID: 24934288.

Jones et al (2014) Neonatal NMDA receptor blockade disrupts spike timing and glutamatergic synapses in fast spiking interneurons in a NMDA receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia. PLoS One 9 e109303. PMID: 25290690.

Lee et al (2014) Synapse elimination and learning rules co-regulated by MHC class I H2-Db. Nature 509 195. PMID: 24695230.

Llano et al (2014) An auditory colliculothalamocortical brain slice preparation in mouse. J Neurophysiol 111 197. PMID: 24108796.

Pedroni et al (2014) Electrophysiological characterization of granule cells in the dentate gyrus immediately after birth. Front Cell Neurosci 8 44. PMID: 24592213.

Rovó et al (2014) Phasic, nonsynaptic GABA-A receptor-mediated inhibition entrains thalamocortical oscillations. J Neurosci 34 7137. PMID: 24849349.

Crawford et al (2013) Social stress alters inhibitory synaptic input to distinct subpopulations of raphe serotonin neurons. ACS Chem Neurosci 4 200. PMID: 23336059.

Cruz et al (2013) Ghrelin increases GABAergic transmission and interacts with ethanol actions in the rat central nucleus of the amygdala. Neuropsychopharmacology 38 364. PMID: 22968812.

Cusulin et al (2013) Characterization of corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of Crh-IRES-Cre mutant mice. PLoS One 8 e64943. PMID: 23724107.

Fuchs et al (2013) GABA(A) receptors can initiate the formation of functional inhibitory GABAergic synapses. Eur J Neurosci 38 3146. PMID: 23909897.

Lau et al (2013) A conformational intermediate in glutamate receptor activation. Neuron 79 492. PMID: 23931998.

Rehak et al (2013) Low voltage activation of KCa1.1 current by Cav3-KCa1.1 complexes. PLoS One 8 e61844. PMID: 23626738.

Bajo et al (2012) Receptor subtype-dependent galanin actions on gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurotransmission and ethanol responses in the central amygdala. Addict Biol 17 694. PMID: 21955024.

Bospoort et al (2012) Munc13 controls the location and efficiency of dense-core vesicle release in neurons. J Cell Biol 199 883. PMID: 23229896.

Engbers et al (2012) Intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels modulate summation of parallel fiber input in cerebellar Purkinje cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109 2601. PMID: 22308379.

Grant et al (2012) Development of the corticothalamic projections. Front Neurosci 6 53. PMID: 22586359.

Haam et al (2012) GABA is excitatory in adult vasopressinergic neuroendocrine cells. J Neurosci 32 572. PMID: 22238092.

Hnasko et al (2012) Ventral tegmental area glutamate neurons: electrophysiological properties and projections. J Neurosci 32 15076. PMID: 23100428.

Hook et al (2012) Dopaminergic modulation of ganglion-cell photoreceptors in rat. Eur J Neurosci 35 507. PMID: 22304466.

Saliba et al (2012) Activity-dependent phosphorylation of GABAA receptors regulates receptor insertion and tonic current. EMBO J 31 2937. PMID: 22531784.

Crosby et al (2011) Endocannabinoids gate state-dependent plasticity of synaptic inhibition in feeding circuits. Neuron 71 529. PMID: 21835348.

Reali et al (2011) GABAergic signalling in a neurogenic niche of the turtle spinal cord. J Physiol 589 5633. PMID: 21911613.

Ripley et al (2011) Regulation of synaptic stability by AMPA receptor reverse signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108 367. PMID: 21173224.

Schmidt and Kofuji (2011) Structure and function of bistratified intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the mouse. J Comp Neurol 519 1492. PMID: 21452206.

Schnell et al (2011) Determinants of functional coupling between astrocytes and respiratory neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex. PLoS One 6 e26309. PMID: 22039458.

Tang et al (2011) Neto1 is an auxiliary subunit of native synaptic kainate receptors. J Neurosci 31 10009. PMID: 21734292.

Olmos-Serrano et al (2010) Defective GABAergic neurotransmission and pharmacological rescue of neuronal hyperexcitability in the amygdala in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome. J Neurosci 30 9929. PMID: 20660275.

Rinetti and Schweizer (2010) Ubiquitination acutely regulates presynaptic neurotransmitter release in mammalian neurons. J Neurosci 30 3157. PMID: 20203175.

Stevens et al (2010) Light-evoked NMDA receptor-mediated currents are reduced by blocking D-serine synthesis in the salamander retina. Neuroreport 21 239. PMID: 20101193.

Torborg et al (2010) Control of CA3 output by feedforward inhibition despite developmental changes in the excitation-inhibition balance. J Neurosci 30 15628. PMID: 21084618.

Citri et al (2009) N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor- and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression are differentially regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Eur J Neurosci 30 1443. PMID: 19821836.

Fan and Cooper (2009) Glutamate-induced NFκB activation in the retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50 917. PMID: 18836176.

Kramár et al (2009) Cytoskeletal changes underlie estrogen's acute effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity. J Neurosci 29 12982. PMID: 19828812.

Llano et al (2009) Rapid and sensitive mapping of long-range connections in vitro using flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging combined with laser photostimulation. J Neurophysiol 101 3325. PMID: 19321634.

Schmidt and Kofuji (2009) Functional and morphological differences among intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. J Neurosci 29 476. PMID: 19144848.

Biou et al (2008) Endocytosis and recycling of AMPA receptors lacking GluR2/3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105 1038. PMID: 18195348.

Furness et al (2008) A quantitative assessment of glutamate uptake into hippocampal synaptic terminals and astrocytes: new insights into a neuronal role for excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2). Neuroscience 157 80. PMID: 18805467.

Guitton and Dudai (2008) Blockade of cochlear NMDA receptors prevents long-term tinnitus during a brief consolidation window after acoustic trauma. Neural Plast 2007 80904. PMID: 18301716.

Jüngling et al (2008) Neuropeptide S-mediated control of fear expression and extinction: role of intercalated GABAergic neurons in the amygdala. Neuron 59 298. PMID: 18667157.

Krook-Magnuson et al (2008) Tonically active inhibition selectively controls feedforward circuits in mouse barrel cortex. J Neurophysiol 100 932. PMID: 18509076.

Molineux et al (2008) Ionic factors governing rebound burst phenotype in rat deep cerebellar neurons. J Neurophysiol 100 2684. PMID: 18768644.

Terunuma et al (2008) Deficits in phosphorylation of GABA(A) receptors by intimately associated protein kinase C activity underlie compromised synaptic inhibition during status epilepticus. J Neurosci 28 376. PMID: 18184780.

Chen et al (2007) Changes in synaptic morphology accompany actin signaling during LTP. J Neurosci 27 5363. PMID: 17507558.

Jara et al (2007) Tumor necrosis factor α stimulates NMDA receptor activity in mouse cortical neurons resulting in ERK-dependent death. J Neurochem 100 1407. PMID: 17241124.

Ting et al (2007) Amyloid precursor protein overexpression depresses excitatory transmission through both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104 353. PMID: 17185415.

Young et al (2007) Glutamate receptor expression and chronic glutamate toxicity in rat motor cortex. Neurobiol Dis 26 78. PMID: 17240155.

Ince-Dunn et al (2006) Regulation of thalamocortical patterning and synaptic maturation by NeuroD2. Neuron 49 683. PMID: 16504944.

Kopp et al (2006) Insufficient sleep reversibly alters bidirectional synaptic plasticity and NMDA receptor function. J Neurosci 26 12456. PMID: 17135407.

Perez-Leon et al (2006) Synaptic inputs to retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock. Eur J Neurosci 24 1117. PMID: 16930437.

Singh et al (2006) Altered balance of glutamatergic/GABAergic synaptic input and associated changes in dendrite morphology after BDNF expression in BDNF-deficient hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci 26 7189. PMID: 16822976.

Jacob et al (2005) Signaling microdomains regulate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated intracellular calcium transients in cultured neurons. J Neurosci 25 2853. PMID: 15772345.

Shleper et al (2005) D-serine is the dominant endogenous coagonist for NMDA receptor neurotoxicity in organotypic hippocampal slices. J Neurosci 25 9413. PMID: 16221850.

Fujino and Oertel (2003) Bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the cerebellum-like mammalian dorsal cochlear nucleus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100 265. PMID: 12486245.

Lafourcade et al Molecular components and functions of the endocannabinoid system in mouse prefrontal cortex. PLoS One 2 e709. PMID: 17684555.

Do you know of a great paper that uses DNQX from Tocris? If so please let us know.show all ▼show less ▲

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