Histone Deacetylases

Supporting information

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a group of enzymes closely related to sirtuins. They catalyze the removal of acetyl groups from lysine residues in histones and non-histone proteins, resulting in transcriptional repression. In general, they do not act autonomously but as components of large multiprotein complexes, such as pRb-E2F and mSin3A, that mediate important transcription regulatory pathways.

There are three classes of HDACs; classes 1, 2 and 4, which are closely related Zn2+-dependent enzymes. HDACs are ubiquitously expressed and they can exist in the nucleus or cytosol. Their subcellular localization is affected by protein-protein interactions (for example HDAC-14.3.3 complexes are retained in the cytosol) and by the class to which they belong (class 1 HDACs are predominantly nuclear whilst class 2 HDACs shuttle between the nucleus and cytosol). HDACs have a role in cell growth arrest, differentiation and death and this has led to substantial interest in HDAC inhibitors as possible antineoplastic agents.

Histone acetylation is upregulated during memory formation but downregulated in numerous neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. As a result, HDAC inhibitors are also of great interest in neuroscience research.

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Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
HDAC1 Human HDAC1 NM_004964 Q13547
Mouse Hdac1 NM_008228 O09106
Rat Hdac1 NM_001025409 Q4QQW4
HDAC2 Human HDAC2 NM_001527 Q92769
Mouse Hdac2 NM_008229 P70288
Rat Hdac2 NM_053447 Q99PA1
View all Histone Deacetylase Gene Data »

Literature for Histone Deacetylases

Cancer Research Product Guide

A collection of over 750 products for cancer research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

  • Cancer Metabolism
  • Epigenetics in Cancer
  • Receptor Signaling
  • Cell Cycle and DNA Damage Repair
  • Angiogenesis
  • Invasion and Metastasis
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Cancer Research Product Guide
Neurodegeneration Product Guide

A collection of over 275 products for neurodegeneration research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Huntington's disease
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Neurodegeneration Product Guide
Epigenetics Scientific Review

This review gives an overview of the development of chemical probes for epigenetic targets, as well as the impact of these tool compounds being made available to the scientific community. In addition, their biological effects are also discussed. Epigenetic compounds available from Tocris are listed.

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Epigenetics Scientific Review
Epigenetics Research Bulletin

Produced by Tocris and updated in 2014, the epigenetics research bulletin gives an introduction into mechanisms of epigenetic regulation, and highlights key Tocris products for epigenetics targets including:

  • Bromodomains
  • DNA Methyltransferases
  • Histone Deacetylases
  • Histone Demethylases
  • Histone Methyltransferases
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Epigenetics Research Bulletin research bulletin
Depression Life Science Poster

Written by Phil Skolnick, Piotr Popik and Ramon Trullas and updated in 2015, this poster highlights presynaptic and postsynaptic targets for the potential treatment of major depressive disorder, as well as outlining the pharmacology of currently approved antidepressant drugs. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.

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Depression Life Science Poster

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Cancer Research Product Guide

Cancer Research Product Guide

Highlights over 750 products for cancer research. Request copy or view PDF today.

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Neurodegeneration Research Product Guide

Neurodegeneration Product Guide

Updated in 2015, this guide highlights over 275 products for neurodegeneration research. Request copy or view PDF today.

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Epigenetics Review

Epigenetics Scientific Review

Written by Susanne Müller-Knapp and Peter J. Brown. Request copy or view PDF today.

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Epigenetics Research Bulletin

The epigenetics research bulletin gives an introduction into mechanisms of epigenetic regulation, and highlights key Tocris products for epigenetics targets. View PDF today.

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Antidepressants - Current and Future Targets

Written by P. Skolnich et al

Depression Life Science Poster

'Antidepressants - Current and Future Targets'. Updated in 2015, highlights the presynaptic and postsynaptic targets for the potential treatment of major depressive disorder. Request copy or view PDF today.

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