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Histone Deacetylases

Supporting information

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a group of enzymes closely related to sirtuins. They catalyze the removal of acetyl groups from lysine residues in histones and non-histone proteins, resulting in transcriptional repression. In general, they do not act autonomously but as components of large multiprotein complexes, such as pRb-E2F and mSin3A, that mediate important transcription regulatory pathways.

There are three classes of HDACs; classes 1, 2 and 4, which are closely related Zn2+-dependent enzymes. HDACs are ubiquitously expressed and they can exist in the nucleus or cytosol. Their subcellular localization is affected by protein-protein interactions (for example HDAC-14.3.3 complexes are retained in the cytosol) and by the class to which they belong (class 1 HDACs are predominantly nuclear whilst class 2 HDACs shuttle between the nucleus and cytosol). HDACs have a role in cell growth arrest, differentiation and death and this has led to substantial interest in HDAC inhibitors as possible antineoplastic agents.

Histone acetylation is upregulated during memory formation but downregulated in numerous neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. As a result, HDAC inhibitors are also of great interest in neuroscience research.

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Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
HDAC1 Human HDAC1 NM_004964 Q13547
Mouse Hdac1 NM_008228 O09106
Rat Hdac1 NM_001025409 Q4QQW4
HDAC2 Human HDAC2 NM_001527 Q92769
Mouse Hdac2 NM_008229 P70288
Rat Hdac2 NM_053447 Q99PA1
View all Histone Deacetylase Gene Data »

Literature for Histone Deacetylases

Cancer Research Guide

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A collection of over 350 products for cancer research, the guide contains modulators of:

  • Receptor Signaling
  • Cell Cycle and DNA Damage Repair
  • Cell Death and Drug Resistance
  • Angiogenesis
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Epigenetics Research Bulletin

Epigenetics Research Bulletin

Produced by Tocris, the epigenetics research bulletin focuses on mechanisms of epigenetic regulation, and highlights key Tocris products for epigenetics targets including:

  • BET Bromodomains
  • DNA Methyltransferases
  • Histone Deacetylases
  • Histone Demethylases
  • Histone Methyltransferases
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Depression Poster

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Written by Phil Skolnick et al, this poster provides an overview of major depressive disorder (MDD), including: potential causes; new and promising targets, both presynaptic and postsynaptic; and the pharmacology of antidepressant drugs. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.

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Cancer Research Product Guide

Cancer Research Guide

Highlights over 350 products for cancer research. Request a copy or view PDF today.

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Epigenetics Research Bulletin

Epigenetics Research Bulletin

Includes up to date information and products for epigenetics research. View PDF today.

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Antidepressants - Current and Future Targets

Written by P. Skolnich et al

Antidepressants poster

'Antidepressants - Current and Future Targets' provides an overview of the current and future targets for the treatment of major depressive disorder.

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New Product Guide


Highlights 140 new products added in the first half of 2014. Request a copy or view PDF today.

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Bio-Techne Events

Neuroscience 2014

Neuroscience 2014

November 15 - 19, 2014

Washington D.C., USA