Caspases (cysteinyl aspartate proteases) are involved in the signal transduction pathways of apoptosis, necrosis and inflammation. These enzymes can be divided into two major classes - initiators and effectors. The initiator isoforms (caspases-1,-4,-5,-8,-9,-10,-11,-12) are activated by, and interact with, upstream adaptor molecules through protein-protein interaction domains known as CARD and DED.
Effector caspases (-3,-6,-7) are responsible for cleaving downstream substrates and are sometimes referred to as the executioner caspases. More than 700 caspase substrates have so far been identified (see The Caspase Substrate Database).
Initiator caspases, such as caspase 8, may be directly activated by death receptors such as FasR. Caspases can also be found intracellularly as part of large multiprotein complexes. For example, caspase 9 is recruited to the apoptosome formed during apoptosis, whilst caspases-1 and 5 can form part of the inflammasome, a key part of cytokine processing during inflammation.
Caspases are regulated by inhibitors of apoptosis and by dominant negative isoforms. They have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many disorders including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, myocardial infarction, cancer, and inflammatory disease.View all products for Caspases »
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Literature for Caspases
Cancer Research Guide
A collection of over 350 products for cancer research, the guide contains modulators of:
- Receptor Signaling
- Cell Cycle and DNA Damage Repair
- Cell Death and Drug Resistance
- Invasion and Metastasis
Written by Elaine Besancon et al, this poster highlights key receptors, transporters and intracellular signals in cerebral ischemia and brain injury that might reveal neuroprotective targets for stroke, trauma and neurodegeneration. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.Request copy | View all posters
Parkinson's Disease Poster
Written by Anthony Shapira, this poster summarizes the neurobiology of Parkinson's disease, including environmental and genetic factors, neurotransmitter pathways, the role of mitochondria, and possible neuroprotective approaches. Current and new treatments are also described. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.Request copy | View all posters
Cell Cycle Kinases Poster
Written by Michelle D. Garrett and Ian Collins, this poster summarizes the response of the checkpoint kinase signaling network to DNA damage, including activation of DNA repair, cell-cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis. It also highlights the different types of DNA damage that can occur and some of the treatment methods that are utilized in cancer. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.Request copy | View all posters
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October 15, 2013