1/3 Raf cAMP Ras Bcl-XL eNOS Src Estrogen
Receptor ER-α Src NF-κB NF-κB PKA GPCR IκB PI3K Akt p38
MAPK Rac RTK
Estrogen is a steroid hormone that is responsible for the regulation of growth, differentiation and function of the reproductive system and several other target tissues. Estrogen receptors have both transcriptional and non-genomic functions and response to both estrogen and other signals that arise from growth factor signaling pathways. Estrogen signaling is often dysregulated in breast cancer and osteoporosis.
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